Netherlands country profile
- 14 December 2016
- From the section Europe
The Netherlands' name reflects its low-lying topography, with more than a quarter of its total area under sea level.
Now a constitutional monarchy, the country began its independent life as a republic in the 16th century, when the foundations were laid for it to become one of the world's foremost maritime trading nations.
Although traditionally among the keener advocates of the European Union, Dutch voters echoed those in France by spurning the proposed EU constitution in a 2005 referendum.
The Netherlands has produced many of the world's most famous artists from Rembrandt and Vermeer in the 17th century to Van Gogh in the 19th and Mondrian in the 20th. It attracts visitors from across the globe.
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The Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam; seat of government: the Hague
Population 16.7 million
Area 41,864 sq km (16,164 sq miles)
Major language Dutch
Major religion Christianity
Life expectancy 79 years (men), 83 years (women)
Head of state: King Willem-Alexander
King Willem-Alexander became the first Dutch male monarch in more than a century in April 2013 when his mother Beatrix abdicated to end a 33-year reign.
The generational change in the House of Orange-Nassau gave the Netherlands a moment of celebration and pageantry at a time of recession brought on by the European economic crisis.
The much-loved Beatrix ended her reign in a nationally televised signing ceremony as thousands of orange-clad people cheered outside. Her retirement followed in the tradition of her mother and grandmother.
Prime minister: Mark Rutte
Mark Rutte won a second term in October 2012 when his liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) formed a coalition with the centre-left Labour Party after narrowly beating it in parliamentary elections.
The VVD won 41 seats in the 150-member lower house - a lead of just two seats over Labour - in the September vote.
Mr Rutte's previous cabinet - a minority coalition with the centre-right Christian Democratic Appeal - had collapsed after only two years in office.
The new coalition cabinet was seen as more pro-austerity and pro-EU than his last one, and warned that tough measures would be needed to weather the financial crisis and secure the Netherlands' economic future.
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The Dutch approach to public broadcasting is unique. Programmes are made by groups which reflect political or religious currents, or other interests. These organisations are allocated airtime on TV and radio, in line with the number of members they have.
Public radio and TV face stiff competition from commercial stations. Viewers have access to a wide range of domestic and foreign channels, thanks mainly to one of the highest cable take-up rates in Europe. Every province has at least one local public TV channel. The three national public TV stations enjoy high audience shares.
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Some key dates in the history of the Netherlands:
1914-1918 - The Netherlands maintains its neutrality during World War I.
1940 - Nazi Germany invades. The Dutch Royal Family flees to England, accompanied by the Dutch cabinet. The Dutch army is overwhelmed and the Netherlands surrenders.
1944 - As Allied forces advance towards Germany, the Netherlands becomes the site of bitter fighting.
1945 - The occupation ends with the surrender of German forces in the Netherlands. The Netherlands goes on to become a charter member of the United Nations.
1949 - The Dutch East Indies, which had been occupied by Japan during World War II, receives its independence as Indonesia.
1949 - The Netherlands abandons its policy of neutrality and joins Nato.
1952 - The Netherlands is a founding member of the European Coal and Steel Community, which becomes the European Economic Community five years later.
1975 - Dutch colony of Surinam achieves independence. Hundreds of thousands of Surinamese emigrate to the Netherlands.
1980 - Queen Juliana abdicates; Beatrix becomes queen.
2002 - Euro replaces the Dutch guilder.
2013 - Queen Beatrix abdicates; her son Willem-Alexander becomes king.
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