Slovenia profile

A chronology of key events:

1918 - After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire, Slovenia joins the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

Capital: Ljubljana

Ljubljana's town centre

The old town belies Ljubljana's industrial nature

  • Population: 259,000
  • "Luvigana" built in 6th century on site of Roman outpost
  • In Austrian Hapsburg possession from 1277

1929 - The kingdom becomes known as Yugoslavia.

1941 - Slovenia is occupied by Nazi Germany and Italy during World War II.

1945 - At the end of the war, Slovenia becomes a constituent republic of socialist Yugoslavia.

1989 - Slovene parliament confirms the right of the country to secede from the Yugoslav federation.

Independence

1990 - First multi-party elections. Milan Kucan becomes president. Overwhelming majority of Slovenes vote for independence in a referendum.

1991 - Slovenia, along with Croatia, declares its independence. The Yugoslav federal army intervenes. Slovene forces defend the country. About 100 people killed. The EU brokers a ceasefire. The Yugoslav army withdraws.

Thousands of nationals of other former Yugoslav republics deprived of rights of residence, property ownership, education, health and welfare services.

Short war of independence

Yugoslav tank

Slovenia defied Yugoslav army in 10-day independence war

1992 - The EU recognises Slovenia's independence, followed by the US. Slovenia joins the United Nations. First parliamentary and presidential elections in the newly independent country. Milan Kucan re-elected president. Janez Drnovsek becomes prime minister.

1993 - Slovenia joins the International Monetary Fund.

1996 - Slovenia signs an association agreement with the EU.

EU, Nato membership

1997 - Janez Drnovsek re-elected prime minister, Milan Kucan re-elected president. The EU opens full membership talks with Slovenia.

1999 - Slovenia, a member of Nato's Partnership for Peace programme, allows Nato to use its airspace during the bombing of Kosovo and Serbia. President Clinton visits in June and says Slovenia is a strong candidate for full Nato membership.

2000 - Janez Drnovsek loses a confidence vote in April; Andrej Bajuk of the centre-right Social Democratic party becomes prime minister. Elections in October see Drnovsek regain power at the head of a four-party coalition.

2002 November- Slovenia one of seven countries formally invited to join Nato at Prague summit.

2002 December - Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek wins presidential elections.

Milan Kucan

Milan Kucan led Slovenia to independence

  • Became Slovenian communist leader in 1986
  • 1990: Elected president in first democratic ballot
  • Stepped down in December 2002

EU summit in Copenhagen formally invites Slovenia to join in 2004.

2003 March - Referendum vote backs both EU and Nato membership.

2003 October - Slovenia objects after Croatian parliament votes to create ecological zone in eastern Adriatic.

2004 February - Parliament introduces law restoring residence and other rights removed from thousands of nationals of other former Yugoslav republics after independence.

2004 March - Slovenia admitted to Nato.

2004 April - Right-wing sponsored referendum rejects law restoring rights removed from nationals of other former Yugoslav republics after independence.

2004 1 May - Slovenia is one of 10 new states to join the EU.

2004 October - Centre-right Slovenian Democratic Party tops poll in general elections. Party leader Janez Jansa sets about forming coalition government.

2005 February - Parliament ratifies EU constitution.

2005 October - Slovene parliament declares ecological zone in the Adriatic with rights to protect and use sea bed.

President Drnovsek calls for independence for Kosovo. Belgrade cancels arrangements for him to visit.

2005 November - Thousands attend rally in Ljubljana in protest at government plans to cut benefits and introduce flat tax rate.

2007 January - Slovenia becomes the first former communist state to adopt the single European currency, the euro.

2007 November - Leftist former diplomat Danilo Turk is elected president.

2008 January - Slovenia becomes the first former communist state to assume the EU presidency.

Centre-left government
Slovenian town of Maribor Maribor: Slovenia's second city was rebuilt after the Second World War

2008 September - Opposition Social Democrats narrowly come out ahead of PM Janez Jansa's Slovenian Democratic Party in parliamentary elections, but fall well short of an absolute majority.

2008 November - Social Democratic leader Borut Pahor becomes prime minister at the head of a centre-left coalition comprising three other parties.

2009 March - Slovenia becomes last NATO member to ratify Croatia's membership in the alliance, setting aside a dispute over the sea border at Piran Bay.

2009 November - Slovenia lifts its embargo on EU membership talks for Croatia after the two countries sign a deal allowing mediators to resolve their border dispute. Slovene voters later endorse the deal.

2010 December - Voters in a referendum reject plans to reform public TV.

2011 May - Slovenia and Croatia officially submit their Piran Bay border dispute to UN arbitration.

2011 June - Voters reject pension reform in a referendum, triggering months of political uncertainty.

2011 September - PM Borut Pahor's centre-left coalition collapses after losing confidence vote in parliament. It remains in office as a caretaker government.

2011 December - Newly-formed Positive Slovenia party scores surprise win in parliamentary elections. However, parliament rejects its leader - Ljubljana mayor Zoran Jankovic - as prime minister.

2012 February - Parliament approves new and mainly centre-right government led by Prime Minister Janez Jansa.

Protesters in Maribor march in support of calls for the resignation of populist mayor Kangler following corruption allegations against him (3 Dec 2012)

Anger at corruption and austerity prompted a wave of protest in 2012 and early 2013

2012 March - Slovenes in a referendum vote against granting gay couples rights similar to those of married heterosexuals.

Anti-austerity protests

2012 April - Civil servants go on strike to protest against the government's austerity measures.

2012 November-December - Thousands of people take part in anti-austerity protests in Ljubljana and Slovenia's second city, Maribor.

2012 December - Centre-left former PM Borut Pahor wins presidential election at run-off vote, defeating incumbent Danilo Turk.

2013 January - Slovenia's anti-corruption watchdog finds that Prime Minister Janez Jansa and Ljubljana mayor Zoran Jankovic "systematically and repeatedly" broke the law by failing to make a full declaration of their assets. Both men deny any wrongdoing.

2013 March - The Jansa coalition collapses over disputes about austerity measures and corruption allegations. Liberal opposition leader Alenka Bratusek becomes prime minister.

2013 April - European Commission warns that urgent policy action is needed to tackle the problems of Slovenia's banks. PM Bratusek says that her government is working "day and night" to save the country's banking system.

Ratings agency Moody's cuts Slovenia's bonds to "junk" status, increasing likelihood that country will have to ask eurozone partners for bailout.

2013 May - Government unveils package of measures aimed at staving off EU bailout.

2013 June - Former prime minister Janez Jansa is convicted of corruption and sentenced to two years in prison. He says he will appeal.

2013 November - Coalition government wins a confidence vote linked to the budget of 2014, signalling support for plans to rescue banks without recourse to an international bailout.

2014 May - Prime Minister Alenka Bratusek resigns, paving the way for early elections.

2014 July - The Miro Cerar Party (SMC), founded in June by a renowned law professor of the same name, wins the snap general election.

2014 August - Miro Cerar becomes prime minister, his centre-left SMC agrees a coalition with two other parties.

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