Crimea profile

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After Russia's military intervention in March 2014, terrestrial broadcasts of popular private station Black Sea TV were cut and replaced with relays of Russian Rossiya 24 TV.

Local rebroadcasts of Ukrainian commercial networks 1+1 and 5 Kanal were also halted. The local pro-Russian administration threatened to block the flow of "mendacious" information.

Reporters Without Borders noted an "increasingly oppressive climate of censorship". A Ukrainian media freedom group said journalists reporting on the stand-off faced official obstruction and intimidation and attacks from pro-Russian protesters.

Almost 100 broadcasters and around 1,200 publications are registered in Crimea, although no more than a few dozen operate or publish regularly.

Outlets catering for the ethnic Russian majority dominate, supported by a mix of state and private funding. Crimea's ethnic Russians are also served by the main Moscow-based TV networks. Other broadcasters and publishers cater for the Ukrainian and Tatar minorities.

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