Crimea's media scene has seen major changes since Russia annexed the peninsula in March 2014.
The US-based Committee to Protect Journalists says press freedom has deteriorated significantly; it cites harassment of journalists and the removal of Ukrainian TVs from terrestrial airwaves and cable networks.
Most local broadcasters are pro-Russian. Only Crimean Tatar ATR TV remains more or less critical of the authorities.
Major Russian TV channels are widely available terrestrially. Top Ukrainian channels can only be watched online or via satellite.
Black Sea TV, once the most-popular TV station based in Crimea, is now only available via satellite and the internet.
Radio stations tend to focus on entertainment and operate as local outlets of major Russian broadcasters.
Russian print media have expanded their presence. Most leading Moscow-based titles are available at local kiosks and many have set up offices in Crimea. Very few Ukrainian papers are sold.
- Krymskaya Pravda - pro-Russian daily
- Krymskoye Vremya - Crimean government daily
- Pervaya Krymskaya - privately-owned pro-Russian daily
- Novyy Krym - pro-Russian weekly
- Avdet - Tatar weekly
- Kryminform - news agency
- Sobytiya Kryma - pro-Ukrainian news site
- Pervyy Krymskiy (First Crimean) - state-run
- ITV - private
- FM TV - private
- Black Sea TV - private, via satellite/online
- ATR - Tatar-owned