Mexico's media were traditionally dominated by the Televisa group, which had firm links with the long-governing Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI. But the loosening of the PRI's hold led to greater editorial independence and the emergence of competitors.
Televisa once had a virtual monopoly in Mexican TV and it is still a major global supplier of programmes in Spanish. New players - such as the Azteca group and foreign satellite and cable operators - have mounted an assault on Televisa's dominance.
The radio market is very large, with around 1,400 local and regional stations and several major station-owning groups. Some high-powered stations on Mexico's northern border beam into lucrative US markets.
Mexican newspapers reflect different political views; sensationalism characterises the biggest-selling dailies.
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) describes Mexico as "one of the hemisphere's most dangerous countries" for the media. Since 2000, scores of journalists have been murdered. "Drug cartels and corrupt officials are implicated in most of the crimes of violence against journalists, which almost always go unpunished," says the watchdog.
Mexico is one of Latin America's biggest internet markets. There were 42 million internet users by the end of 2011 - a 37% penetration rate (Internetworldstats). Facebook is the most popular social network.
- Excelsior - established daily
- La Jornada - daily
- Reforma - influential daily
- El Universal - established Mexico City daily
- El Sol de Mexico - daily
- El Financiero - business daily
- Siempre! - political weekly
- Proceso - political weekly
- Televisa - Mexico's TV giant, operates four networks and has many local affiliates
- TV Azteca - main competitor of Televisa, operates two networks and local stations
- Once TV - Canal 11 - Canal 11 - public, educational, cultural
- Television Metropolitana - Canal 22 - government-owned cultural network
- Grupo ACIR - has stations in Mexico City and across the country
- MVS Radio - operates in the capital and elsewhere
- Nucleo Radio Mil - operates several mediumwave (AM) and FM stations in Mexico City
- Grupo Radio Centro - operates large network of stations
- W Radio - news, talk network; part of Televisa group
- Instituto Mexicano de la Radio (IMER) - state-run, operates domestic services and external service