- 21 August 2012
- From the section Latin America & Caribbean
South America's biggest media market is home to thousands of radio stations and hundreds of TV channels. TV has long been the most influential medium.
Media ownership is highly concentrated. Domestic conglomerates such as Globo, Brazil's most-successful broadcaster, dominate the market and run TV and radio networks, newspapers and pay-TV operations.
Brazilian-made dramas and soaps - known as telenovelas - are aired around the world. Game shows and reality TV attract huge audiences.
The constitution guarantees a free press and there is vigorous debate in the media about political and social matters.
However, US-based Freedom House warned in 2011 that court injunctions were hampering reporting of key criminal cases. Journalists, particularly those in provincial areas, are vulnerable to physical attack.
Many homes subscribe to pay TV. Brazil is rolling out digital TV and aims to switch off analogue signals from 2016.
By December 2011, more than 79 million Brazilians were online (Internetworldstats.com), many of them via internet cafes.
Brazilians are among the world's top users of blogs and social networks. Internet access is not generally restricted. However, the judiciary has grown "increasingly aggressive" in its attempts to regulate content, says Freedom House.
Leading sites include UOL and Globo's G1. Google's Orkut and Facebook are the main social network rivals.
- O Dia - Rio de Janeiro daily
- O Correio Brazilense - influential daily
- O Globo - Globo-owned Rio de Janeiro daily
- Jornal do Brasil - Rio de Janeiro daily
- Folha de Sao Paulo - daily
- O Estado de Sao Paulo - daily
- TV Band - commercial network operated by Grupo Bandeirantes
- Rede Globo - market leader, operated by Globo
- Sistema Brasileiro de Televisao (SBT) - major commercial network
- TV Record - major commercial network
- TV Brasil - operated by state-run EBC
- Rede TV - commercial network
- TV Cultura - public, educational and cultural
- Radio Nacional - FM and mediumwave (AM) networks operated by state-run EBC
- Globo Radio - commercial networks operated by Globo
- Radio Bandeirantes - network operated by Grupo Bandeirantes
- Radio Cultura - public, cultural programmes