Iraq profile

President: Fuad Masum

Fuad Masum Fuad Masum was elected president in July 2014

Veteran Iraqi politician Fuad Masum was overwhelmingly elected by parliament in July 2014. He is the second ethnic Kurdish president of Iraq, succeeding Jalal Talabani.

Born in 1938, he is the son of Sheikh Mulla Masum, a former head of the Association of Muslim Scholars in Kurdistan, and belongs to an established political dynasty with Muslim clerical links.

A former law lecturer, President Masum is a founding member of Mr Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, and served as its envoy in Syria and Britain before becoming prime minister of the Iraqi Kurdistan region in 1992.

He went on to be speaker of the Iraqi parliament in 2004-2005, following the fall of Saddam Hussein.

President Masum is well-connected with parties and groups across the Iraqi political spectrum.

Prime Minister: Haider al-Abadi

Haider al-Abadi in Baghdad 2014 Haider al-Abadi became prime minister in September 2014

A veteran politician from the Shia State of Law party, Mr al-Abadi was deputy speaker of parliament when President Masum asked him to form a government in the summer of 2014.

Outgoing prime minister Nouri Maliki initially opposed the appointment of his party colleague as a "coup", but gave in when Shia community leaders and the US backed Mr al-Abadi.

The new prime minister heads a cabinet with Sunni and Kurdish support, something Mr al-Maliki lacked, and will need to build on this in order to push back Islamic State militants who have seized parts of northern Iraq.

He also faces the prospect of a Kurdish regional referendum on independence later in the year.

Mr al-Maliki was prime minister from 2006, and alienated Kurds and Sunnis with his firmly Shia orientation.

He failed to hold back Sunni insurgents after US troops left in 2011, and was dismissed after the Islamic State captured Mosul and moved into central Iraq in the summer of 2014.

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