Israel's Benjamin Netanyahu: Commando turned PM
- 18 March 2015
- From the section Middle East
Benjamin Netanyahu looks set to secure a fourth term in office, putting him on track to become Israel's longest serving leader.
A shrewd political operator, he called snap elections in late 2014, scoring a dramatic win despite losing ground in opinion polls right up to the day of the vote in March.
For Mr Netanyahu, the number one issue has long been Israel's security, and he has taken a tough line towards the Palestinians, seeing land-for-peace as too dangerous to accept.
His third term shifted from renewed peace talks, which collapsed in acrimony, to war with militants in Gaza just three months later.
Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu was born in Tel Aviv in 1949. In 1963 his family moved to the US when his father Benzion, the historian and Zionist activist, was offered an academic post.
At the age of 18, Benjamin Netanyahu returned to Israel, where he spent five distinguished years in the army, serving as a captain in an elite commando unit, the Sayeret Matkal. He took part in a raid on Beirut's airport in 1968 and fought in the 1973 Middle East war.
After his military service ended, Mr Netanyahu went back to the US, where he earned bachelor's and master's degrees at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
In 1976, Mr Netanyahu's brother, Jonathan, was killed leading a raid to rescue hostages from a hijacked airliner in Entebbe, Uganda. His death had a profound impact on the Netanyahu family, and his name became legendary in Israel.
Mr Netanyahu set up an anti-terrorism institute in his brother's memory, and caught the attention of the then Israeli ambassador to the US and future foreign minister, Moshe Arens. In 1982, Mr Arens made Benjamin Netanyahu his deputy chief of mission in Washington.
Overnight, Mr Netanyahu's public life was launched. An articulate English speaker with a distinctive American accent, he became a familiar face on US television and an effective advocate of the Israeli cause.
Mr Netanyahu was then appointed Israel's permanent representative at the UN in New York in 1984.
Only in 1988, when he returned to Israel, did he become involved in domestic politics, winning a seat in the Knesset (parliament) and becoming deputy foreign minister.
Politically, Benjamin Netanyahu positioned himself to the right of previous leaders of Likud. After Likud lost the 1992 general election, he became party chairman.
In 1996, he became Israel's first directly elected prime minister after narrowly beating the incumbent, Shimon Peres, who had called early polls following the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin. Mr Netanyahu was also Israel's youngest prime minister and the first to be born after the state was founded in 1948.
His first term was brief but dramatic, beset by divisions in his coalition.
Despite having fiercely criticised the Oslo Accords between Israel and the Palestinians, in 1997 Mr Netanyahu signed a deal handing over 80% of Hebron to Palestinian Authority control and signed the Wye River Memorandum in 1998 outlining further withdrawals from the West Bank.
Mr Netanyahu survived rather than prospered, and lost office in 1999 after he called elections 17 months early. He was defeated by Labour leader Ehud Barak, Mr Netanyahu's former commander, who promised to push for a permanent peace deal and withdraw from southern Lebanon.
Mr Netanyahu resigned as a member of the Knesset and chairman of Likud following the election loss. He was succeeded as Likud leader by Ariel Sharon.
After Mr Sharon was elected prime minister in 2001, Mr Netanyahu returned to government, first as foreign minister and then as finance minister. In 2005, he resigned in protest at the Israeli withdrawal from the Gaza Strip.
His chance came again in 2005, when Mr Sharon - just before a massive stroke that left him in a coma - split from Likud and set up a new centrist party, Kadima.
Mr Netanyahu won the Likud leadership and was a trenchant critic of the Kadima-led coalition and Mr Sharon's successor, Ehud Olmert.
Benjamin Netanyahu was elected prime minister for the second time in March 2009, and governed with an alliance of mainly right-wing, nationalist and religious parties before later forming a national unity coalition.
Mr Netanyahu's government was criticised by some in the international community for not renewing a partial freeze on Jewish settlement-building and possibly avoiding a collapse in peace talks with the Palestinians in late 2010.
He publicly accepted the concept of a demilitarised Palestinian state, but insisted the Palestinians accept Israel as a "Jewish state" in turn and make reciprocal concessions.
In 2015 he distanced himself from accepting the prospect of a state, dismissing it as irrelevant given the rise of militant Islam across the Middle East.
In late 2012 he called early elections, and weeks after parliament was dissolved Mr Netanyahu ordered a major offensive against militants in Gaza after an escalation of rocket-fire into Israel.
He called off the operation without sending in ground troops, with all the risks that would entail, and the eight-day operation was widely regarded in Israel as a success.
However, after a relative lull, cross-border violence flared again and after a surge of rocket attacks in July 2014, Mr Netanyahu launched another offensive on Gaza with the stated aim of restoring long-term quiet for Israel.
The 50-day war left more than 2,100 Palestinians dead, most of them civilians, according to UN and Palestinian officials. On the Israeli side, 67 soldiers and six civilians were killed.
Although during the conflict Israel had the support of the United States, its closest ally, relations between Mr Netanyahu and US President Barack Obama have been difficult, and sharply deteriorated towards the end of Mr Netanyahu's third term.
They reached a low point when Mr Netanyahu addressed Congress in March 2015, warning against a "bad deal" arising out of US negotiations with Iran over its nuclear programme. The Obama administration severely rebuked the visit as interfering and damaging.
Mr Netanyahu has taken a hard line towards Iran, repeatedly warning of the danger to the international community of leaving it with the capacity to develop nuclear weapons.
He has called for much tougher sanctions against the Iranian regime, seeing it as the number one threat to Israel, and indicated his willingness to use force to stop Iran's nuclear programme if all else fails.