Rafik Hariri murder trial begins at The Hague

BBC's Jim Muir on the moment that changed a nation's history

The trial of four men accused of murdering former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri has begun at an unprecedented tribunal at The Hague.

The four - alleged associates of the Syria-backed militant Shia movement Hezbollah - have not been arrested and are being tried in absentia.

Hariri and 21 others were killed by a massive car bomb in Beirut in 2005.

The killings polarised Lebanon and led to the withdrawal of Syrian troops. Hezbollah denies any involvement.

It instead says the assassination was part of an Israeli and US conspiracy.

Shortly before the trial was to start, a suicide bomb blast was reported near a government building in the town of Hermel - a Hezbollah stronghold.

Car bombing in Beirut, Feb 2005 The 2005 car bombing of Rafik Hariri led to the withdrawal of Syrian troops

At least four people and the bomber were killed and more than 20 wounded in the attack in the town, which is in the Bekaa Valley, near the northern border with Syria.

Fifth suspect

In his address at the start of the trial, judge David Re said it had been decided that all necessary steps had been taken to try to bring the accused to court.

An explosion hit the north Lebanon town of Hermel as the trial got under way

He said that the court would proceed as if the defendants were present and that, although no pleas had been entered, they would be presumed to have pleaded not guilty and it would be the prosecution's task to prove guilt beyond all reasonable doubt.

Analysis

With something like 500 witness statements and hundreds of hours of prosecution and defence submissions to be heard, it is likely to be a protracted affair, lasting many months and possibly years.

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) itself - leaving aside the nearly four years of international investigation that preceded its establishment - has already cost around $325m (£200m).

Since the suspects have vanished from sight and are unlikely ever to end up behind bars, could it not be seen as a colossal waste of time, effort and money?

The STL denies this, saying "justice is not a waste of time", but it will be struggling to keep the proceedings as legal and apolitical as possible, trying to shake off the accusation that it is politically motivated and biased.

In his opening statement, prosecutor Norman Farrell said the amount of explosives used showed the attackers had intended to send "a terrifying message and to cause panic among the population of Beirut and Lebanon".

Chief Prosecutor Norman Farrell: "Despite the perpetrators' efforts ... the truth leaves its traces"

He added: "It is not that the perpetrators simply did not care if they killed their fellow citizens. Rather they intended to do so."

Hariri's son, Saad, and other family members are at the trial.

The BBC's Jim Muir in Beirut says the UN-backed trial is a unique occasion - the first time that a terrorism charge has come before an international court and the first international trials in absentia since the post-World War Two Nuremberg prosecutions.

The bomb attack that killed Hariri and 21 others and wounded 226 more on 14 February 2005 was a seismic event in Lebanese history, fuelling the sectarian divisions between Sunni and Shia Muslims in the country.

Supporters of Hariri, one of Lebanon's most influential Sunni leaders, blamed Syria for the attack.

There were massive demonstrations against Syrian troops who had been stationed in the country since 1976. They left a few months later.

The UN set up the Special Tribunal for Lebanon in 2007 to investigate the bombing.

Four men on trial

The four men accused of killing Rafik Hariri: Mustafa Amine Badreddine, Salim Jamil Ayyash, Hussein Hassan Oneissi and Assad Hassan Sabra
  • Mustafa Badreddine, 52: Suspected Hezbollah deputy military commander, brother-in-law of killed Hezbollah commander Imad Mughniyeh. Suspected bomb-maker in 1983 US Marines barracks blast in Beirut. Aka Elias Fouad Saab
  • Salim Ayyash, 50: Suspected senior Hezbollah official, accused of co-ordinating Hariri attack on the ground. Aka Abu Salim
  • Hussein Oneissi, 39: Aka Hassan Issa. Accused of complicity in Hariri attack and sowing false trail
  • Assad Sabra, 37: Same accusations as Oneissi

It issued warrants in 2011 for Mustafa Badreddine, Salim Ayyash, Hussein Oneissi, and Assad Sabra.

They face counts ranging from conspiracy to commit a terrorist act to murder and attempted murder.

Mr Badreddine is alleged to have been a senior Hezbollah military commander.

There is a fifth suspect - Hassan Habib Merhi, 48, - whose case may be joined to this trial at a later date.

The trial will hear 500 witness statements and could last months and possibly years.

Saad Hariri: "Hopefully we will see the time of impunity ending and the time of justice coming"

Our correspondent says the evidence against the four suspects appears to be largely based on analysis of mobile phone networks.

But Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrullah says it was Israel that tracked Hariri's movements by satellite, penetrating the phone system to falsify records and masterminding the assassination to discredit and undermine its enemies.

Sunni-Shia tensions remain high in Lebanon - exacerbated by the Syrian civil war.

Shia-group Hezbollah has been fighting alongside Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's forces.

Our correspondent says Lebanon is as divided now as it was in 2005 - as shown by another bomb blast less than three weeks ago that killed one of Hariri's close associates, Muhammad Chatah, only a few hundred metres from where Hariri had died.

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