Middle East

Palmyra's Baalshamin temple 'blown up by IS'

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Palmyra ruin Image copyright Elizabeth Roberts
Image caption Elizabeth Roberts took this image of the Temple of Baalshamin in 2007

Islamic State militants have destroyed Palmyra's ancient Temple of Baalshamin, Syrian officials and activists say.

Syria's head of antiquities was quoted as saying the temple was blown up on Sunday. The UK -based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported that it happened a month ago.

IS took control of Palmyra in May, sparking fears for the site.

It is considered one of the ancient world's most important cultural centres.

The ancient city, which is a Unesco World Heritage site, is famed for its well-preserved Graeco-Roman ruins, and the Baalshamin temple, built nearly 2,000 years ago, is one of the city's best-known buildings.

The Islamic State group has destroyed several ancient sites in Iraq. The militants believe any shrines or statues implying the existence of another deity are sacrilege and idolatry, and should be destroyed.

Image copyright AFP
Image caption Palmyra is a large site, visited by millions
Image copyright AFP
Image caption The oldest parts of the Baalshamin temple dated to the 1st Century AD
Image copyright AP
Image caption Palmyra sits in the desert, some 200km (125 miles) north-east of the Syrian capital, Damascus
Image copyright AFP
Image caption Many smaller statues and artefacts were moved from the city before it fell to IS

IS "placed a large quantity of explosives in the temple of Baalshamin today [Sunday] and then blew it up causing much damage to the temple," Syrian antiquities chief Maamoun Abdul Karim told AFP news agency.

"The cella (inner area of the temple) was destroyed and the columns around collapsed," he said.

Emma Loosley, a professor at Exeter University who lived near the ancient city for three years, said the temple's cella was "pretty much perfect".

"I can't think of another temple as beautifully preserved as the temple of Baalshamin, and what was special about Palmyra was that it was a unique culture," she told the BBC.

"It had its own gods, its own form of art and architecture that you don't get anywhere else."


Ancient city of Palmyra

  • Unesco World Heritage Site, known as Pearl of the Desert
  • Site contains monumental ruins of great city, once one of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world from the 1st and 2nd Centuries
  • Its art and architecture combines Greco-Roman techniques with local traditions and Persian influences
  • More than 150,000 tourists visited Palmyra every year before Syrian conflict
  • Site boasts a number of monumental projects, over 1,000 columns, and a formidable necropolis of over 500 tombs

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The Baalshamin temple is dedicated to the Phoenician god of storms and fertilising rains, and was almost completely intact.

The oldest parts of the temple are thought to have dated from the year 17AD.

Residents who had fled from Palmyra also said IS had planted explosives at the temple, although they had done it about one month ago, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.

Media captionHistorian Dan Cruickshank explains the significance of Palmyra

Last month, IS published photos of militants destroying what it said were artefacts looted at Palmyra.

A week ago, it emerged that the archaeologist who had looked after Palmyra's ruins for four decades, Khaled al-Asaad, had been beheaded by the militant group.

Mr Abdul Karim said the 81-year-old had refused to tell IS where some treasures had been hidden, in an effort to save them.

The group has also published photos of what they said was the destruction of two Islamic shrines near Palmyra, which they described as "manifestations of polytheism".

The modern city of Palmyra - known locally as Tadmur - is situated in a strategically important area on the road between the Syrian capital, Damascus, and the eastern city of Deir al-Zour.


IS attacks on historical sites and artefacts

January: IS ransacks the central library in the Iraqi city of Mosul, burning thousands of books.

February: A video emerges showing the destruction of ancient artefacts at the central museum in Mosul.

March: IS uses explosives and bulldozers on Nimrud, one of Iraq's greatest archaeological treasures. Shortly after, IS militants destroy ruins at Hatra.

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