Nepal country profile

Map of Nepal

With its ancient culture and the Himalayas as a backdrop, landlocked Nepal was closed to the outside world until the 1950s.

Since then the country has seen the creation of a multi-party parliamentary system, a decade-long Maoist insurgency and the abolition of its monarchy.

Flanked by China and India, it is home to eight of the world's highest mountains including Mount Everest, known locally as Sagarmatha.

As one of the world's poorest countries, Nepal's economy relies heavily on aid and tourism.

A devastating earthquake in April 2015 killed thousands of people, flattened villages and reduced numerous heritage sites to ruin.

Since then political infighting has delayed much of the reconstruction despite billions of dollars having been pledged.


Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Capital: Kathmandu

  • Population 31 million

  • Area 147,181 sq km (56,827 sq miles)

  • Major languages Nepali

  • Major religions Hinduism, Buddhism

  • Life expectancy 68 years (men), 70 years (women)

  • Currency Nepalese rupee

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President: Bidhya Devi Bhandari

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Bidhya Devi Bhandari was elected as Nepal's first woman president in a parliamentary vote in October 2015. She was deputy leader of the Maoist Communist Party of Nepal Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML) and a former defence minister.

She is a campaigner for women's rights and widow of late communist leader Madan Kumar Bhandari.

The post of president is mainly ceremonial.

Prime minister: Sher Bahadur Deuba

Image copyright PRAKASH MATHEMA/AFP/Getty Images

Nepali Congress leader Sher Bahadur Deuba became prime minister in June 2017, in a scheduled transfer of power on the resignation of the Maoist leader Pushpa Kamal Dahal.

The two coalition parties had agreed to the switch the previous August on a rotational basis until the next election in February 2018.

This is Sher Bahadur Deuba's fourth term as head of government, as he served as prime minister in 1995-1997, 2001-2002, and 2004-2005. MEDIA

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Media freedom is restricted by the fact that journalists have been the victims of violence, activists say.

There is a small film industry, nicknamed "Kollywood".


Some key dates in Nepal's history:

1768 - Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah conquers Kathmandu and lays foundations for unified kingdom.

1814-16 - Anglo-Nepalese War; culminates in treaty which establishes Nepal's current boundaries.

1846 - Nepal falls under sway of hereditary chief ministers known as Ranas, who dominate the monarchy and cut country off from outside world.

1950 - Anti-Rana forces based in India form alliance with monarch.

1951 - End of Rana rule. Sovereignty of crown restored and anti-Rana rebels in Nepalese Congress Party form government.

1960 - King Mahendra seizes control and suspends parliament, constitution and party politics.

1991 - Nepali Congress Party wins first democratic elections.

1995-2006 - Maoist revolt which kills thousands.

2008 - Nepal becomes a republic after abolition of monarchy.

2015 September - New constitution adopted - the first in Asia to specifically protect gay rights.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption The Maoist insurgency blighted Nepal for a decade

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