Private broadcasting has flourished. The government operates radio and TV services and publishes a Nepali-language daily and an English-language paper.
Political instability and the activities of illegal armed groups threaten media freedom and the safety of journalists, notes Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
RSF says violence is the main problem facing journalists, adding that physical assaults generally go unpunished.
There is a small film industry, nicknamed "Kollywood". Indian films are staple fare in cinemas.
BBC World Service broadcasts on 103 FM in Kathmandu.
There were nearly 2.7 million internet users by June 2012 (Internetworldstats.com). Facebook is a popular platform and the use of Twitter is on the rise. Prominent bloggers write about political issues.
Facebook has been used for political and social activism and for organising protests. Armed groups have used social media to threaten journalists, says RSF.
- The Kathmandu Post - private, English-language daily
- The Rising Nepal - semi-official English-language daily
- Gorkhapatra - semi-official daily, Nepal's oldest newspaper
- Kantipur - daily, one of the first private newspapers
- Annapurna Post - daily
- The Himalayan Times - English-language
- The Nepali Times - English-language weekly
- Nepal Television Corporation (NTV) - state-run, operates NTV and NTV Metro channels
- Kantipur TV - private
- Image Channel TV - private
- Avenues TV - private
- Radio Nepal - state-run, operates national and regional services
- Hits FM - commercial, music-based
- HBC 94 FM - operated by Himalayan Broadcasting Company
- Radio Sagarmatha - FM, public, community station
- Kantipur FM - commercial
- Image FM - commercial
- National News Agency (RSS) - state-run
- nepalnews.com - private, online news