Protesters hold up placards prior to James Clapper testifying
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BBC's Mark Mardell's intelligence hearing round-up

29 October 2013 Last updated at 23:18 GMT

The head of US intelligence has told a congressional hearing that spying on foreign leaders is a fundamental part of their work.

His evidence comes in the wake of allegations the US monitored phone calls made by the German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

But James Clapper, director of National Intelligence, said foreign allies regularly spied upon the US and its leaders.

The BBC's North America editor Mark Mardell reports.