Trump's cabinet: The people around the president
- 21 February 2017
- From the section US & Canada
As US President Donald Trump settles in to the White House, we look at the family members and associates who are part of the team and have key roles in decision-making during his presidency.
Vice-President Mike Pence
The former Indiana governor is charged with leading the team deciding the key appointments in the new administration.
He is a favourite among social conservatives who boasts considerable experience in Washington.
Mr Pence was raised Roman Catholic along with his five siblings in Columbus, Indiana, and says he was inspired by liberal icons John F Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr.
He is known for his staunch opposition to abortion, signing a bill in March to ban abortion in Indiana on the basis of disability, gender or race of the foetus.
He has said he would favour overturning a 1973 Supreme Court judgement, often referred to as the Roe v Wade case, which bars the US government from prohibiting abortions.
Women's rights advocates have mounted online campaigns against his views, including asking people to call his office to tell them about their periods or to make donations to family-planning organisations in Mr Pence's name.
He served as the chair of the House Republican Conference, the third highest-ranking Republican leadership position.
He also chaired the Republican Study Group, a coalition of conservative House Republicans, which could give him a boost with some evangelicals of the party that have questioned Mr Trump's ideological purity, the BBC's Anthony Zurcher says.
Rex Tillerson - Secretary of State
Rex Tillerson, who was described by Mr Trump as "a world-class player", ran the world's most valuable, publicly-traded oil company before moving to the State Department.
The former head of Exxon Mobil is known for his close ties with Vladimir Putin; in 2013, the Kremlin gave the Texan an Order of Friendship award.
Republicans and Democrats questioned Mr Tillerson's links to the Russian president, and his appointment was also criticised by climate change activists, although he did say in his confirmation hearing that he believed climate change was a real threat.
Mr Tillerson had spent his entire career, more than 40 years, working for Exxon.
He joined the company as a production engineer, fresh from the University of Texas, Austin, and worked his way up to the top job in 2006.
Mr Tillerson had been expected to retire before being appointed to government.
He has made more than $240m just in the past decade as Exxon CEO and took a hefty pay cut as America's top diplomat, earning a relatively meagre $203,700 a year.
HR McMaster - National Security Adviser
A lieutenant general with the US Army, HR McMaster served in Iraq and Afghanistan, where he worked on a government anti-corruption drive.
He replaces Lt Gen Michael Flynn, who was fired after just three weeks and three days in the job because he misled Vice-President Mike Pence about his calls with the Russian ambassador.
Lt Gen McMaster is not known to have close ties to Moscow.
Time magazine named him as one of its 100 most influential people in the world in 2014, saying he "might be the 21st Century Army's pre-eminent warrior-thinker".
He has a PhD in US history from the University of North Carolina.
He is also no stranger to questioning authority. In a 2014 interview, he said: "The commanders that I've worked for, they want frank assessments, they want criticism and feedback."
His new role involves serving as an independent adviser to the president on issues of national security and foreign policy.
Steven Mnuchin - Treasury Secretary
Mr Trump himself floated the idea of naming his finance chairman for the post of treasury secretary, before ultimately announcing him as his pick.
"Steve Mnuchin is a world-class financier, banker and businessman, and has played a key role in developing our plan to build a dynamic, booming economy that will create millions of jobs," Mr Trump said in a statement announcing his decision.
Not all of Mr Trump's supporters have welcomed the idea of handing the levers of national tax policy to a consummate Wall Street insider.
During his time running the OneWest bank, his business oversaw thousands of home foreclosures in the aftermath of the subprime mortgage crisis.
Mr Mnuchin amassed a fortune during his 17 years at Goldman Sachs before founding a movie production company that was behind such box office hits as the X-Men franchise and American Sniper.
James Mattis - Secretary of Defence
After meeting the retired Marine Corps general met in November, Mr Trump called him "very impressive", adding in a tweet that he was "A true General's General!"
Gen Mattis served in the Marine Corps for 44 years, fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan. A counterinsurgency expert, he played a key role in fighting in Falluja in 2004.
From 2010 to 2013 he led US Central Command, which covers an area from the Horn of Africa into Central Asia and includes all US military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
He is known for his blunt comments. In 2005 he was criticised after saying - in reference to Afghan men who "slap women around... because they didn't wear a veil" - that "it's a hell of a lot of fun to shoot them".
But he is also described as a popular leader well-liked by those he commanded, and an avid reader of literature on warfare.
As Gen Mattis retired in 2013, the law that bans military officers from serving as defence chief for seven years after leaving active duty was waived.
John Kelly - Department of Homeland Security Secretary
The president nominated the retired Marine General to oversee Homeland Security, which is responsible for a number of security issues ranging from immigration and cyber hacking to airport security and natural disaster management.
The former four-star general, whose military career spans four decades, resigned in January 2017 after leaving his post as the head of the military's Southern Command, which oversees military activities in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Mr Kelly is the highest-ranking military officer to lose a child in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
His son Robert, a first lieutenant in the Marines, was killed in combat when he stepped on a landmine in Afghanistan in 2010.
The seasoned commander had previously clashed with the Obama administration on illegal immigration at the US-Mexican border, an issue Mr Trump vowed to make a priority in office.
Mr Kelly becomes the third retired general to accept a high-level position in the Trump administration.
Terry Branstad - Ambassador to China
The former Iowa governor has been called an "old friend" of Chinese President Xi Jinping.
"We welcome him to play a greater role in advancing the development of China-US relations," said Foreign Ministry spokesman Lu Kang.
The two have known each other for more than 30 years, going back to Xi's trips to Iowa in the 1980s.
China is Iowa's second-largest export market, after Canada, according to the US-China Business Council,. The state sold $1.4bn in crop products to the Asian nation in 2015.
Mr Branstad was the longest-serving US governor, with two non-consecutive terms that began in 1983 and 2011.
Before he took Iowa's helm, he was elected to three terms in Iowa House of Representatives and later served as the state's lieutenant governor.
President Xi and Mr Branstad first met during the governor's first term, in 1985, when China's future leader visited Iowa as a provincial agricultural official.
Mr Branstad, who has travelled to China four times in the past seven years, also hosted a dinner for Mr Xi during his visit to the state in 2012.
Mr Branstad was an early supporter for Mr Trump, and his son served as the president-elect's state campaign director in Iowa.
He shares many of Mr Trump's socially and fiscally conservative views - an advocate for small government and strongly pro-life.
Tom Price - Health and Human Services Secretary
The former Georgia congressman and orthopaedic surgeon chaired the House of Representatives budget committee and was an outspoken critic of President Barack Obama's signature healthcare reforms.
Previously a six-term congressman, he is expected to play a key role in Republican plans to dismantle the Affordable Healthcare Act (Obamacare).
Having promised to replace the programme throughout his campaign, Mr Trump said details of an alternative were "down to the final strokes" in January 2017.
The president has said he favours keeping certain provisions such as allowing young adults to be insured on their parents' policies and barring insurers from denying coverage for pre-existing conditions.
Mr Price said he aimed to create a new system that worked for patients, families and doctors, adding that it should "protect the well-being of the country while embracing its innovative spirit".
Mr Trump praised Mr Price as a "tireless problem solver" who was "exceptionally qualified to shepherd our commitment to repeal and replace Obamacare".
Elaine Chao - Transportation Secretary
Elaine Chao could wield a great deal of influence in Mr Trump's cabinet if his plan to boost infrastructure spending and rebuild the nation's roads, bridges and other public transit comes to fruition.
Ms Chao, who was born in Taiwan, became the first Asian-American woman to hold a position in a presidential cabinet when she led the Labor Department under President Bush from 2001-09.
Ms Chao, who is married to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, served as deputy secretary of transportation and director of the Peace Corps in former President George HW Bush's administration.
She came to the US with her family at the age of eight and settled in New York, where her father became a shipping magnate.
Ms Chao becomes the second person to hold the positions of labor secretary, transportation secretary and the spouse of a Senate majority leader.
Elizabeth Dole previously held that title.
Jeff Sessions - Attorney General
Mr Sessions had been one of Mr Trump's closest allies throughout the campaign, and his loyalty was rewarded when he became the nation's top prosecutor.
"We need a lawful system of immigration," Mr Sessions said after he was sworn in by vice-president Mike Pence in the White House Oval Office.
"One that serves the interest of the people of the United States. That's not wrong, that's not immoral, that's not indecent."
In a statement, Mr Trump called the senator from Alabama a "world class legal mind".
He was a supporter of the 2003 US invasion of Iraq, which Mr Trump recently called "a terrible and stupid thing".
Mr Sessions sat on the Senate Armed Services Committee, the Judiciary Committee and the Budget Committee.
Allegations of racism have dogged him throughout his career, and were raised during his confirmation hearing in the Senate.
He lost out on a federal judgeship back in 1986 when former colleagues said he had used the n-word and joked about the Ku Klux Klan, saying he thought they were "okay, until he learned that they smoked marijuana". In his confirmation hearing, he called the KKK allegation "damnably false".
Mr Sessions has also been accused of calling a black assistant US attorney "boy" and labelling the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People "un-American" and "communist-inspired."
During the hearing, he acknowledged "the horrendous impact that relentless and systemic discrimination and the denial of voting rights has had on our African-American brothers and sisters".
Mike Pompeo - CIA Director
The hardline Republican Congressman is the United States' new spymaster.
Mr Pompeo was offered the job of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) director even though he backed US President-elect Donald Trump's rival, Florida Senator Marco Rubio, in the party's presidential primary race.
The three-term tea party Republican from Wichita, Kansas, is a vehement critic of the Obama administration's nuclear deal with Iran and has defended the National Security Agency's bulk data collection programme.
He also opposes closing Guantanamo Bay and, after visiting the prison in 2013, he remarked that some inmates who had declared a hunger strike looked like they had put on weight.
Mr Pompeo said in a statement he was "honoured and humbled" to accept the nomination, noting that it was a "difficult decision" to leave his post.
Reince Priebus - Chief of Staff
Mr Trump's White House gatekeeper was chairman of the Republican National Committee, and acted as a bridge between the Republican nominee and a party establishment that was embarrassed by its own presidential standard-bearer.
But he has never held elected office and brings no policy experience to the White House in a role serving as a liaison to cabinet agencies.
Mr Priebus is close to House Speaker Paul Ryan, a fellow Wisconsinite, who could be instrumental in steering the new administration's legislative agenda.
Nikki Haley - US Ambassador to the UN
In the Republican primaries, Nikki Haley, then the governor of South Carolina, first backed Florida Senator Marco Rubio and later Texas Senator Ted Cruz before she finally threw her support behind Mr Trump.
She was highly critical of Mr Trump's proposal to ban Muslim immigrants, calling it "un-American", and also of his refusal to release tax records.
Announcing her as the first woman chosen for his cabinet, Mr Trump called her "a proven dealmaker" who will be "a great leader representing us on the world stage".
The daughter of Indian immigrants, Mrs Haley was the first minority and female governor of South Carolina, a deeply conservative state with a long history of racial tensions.
As the youngest governor in the US and only the second Indian-American to serve at the helm of a US state, she has been characterised as a rising star within the Republican Party.
Before becoming the state's chief executive, she served six years as a member of the state's House of Representatives.
But her biggest appearance on the national stage came in 2015, when she had the Confederate battle flag removed from her state's Capitol building.
Rick Perry - Energy Secretary
The former Texas governor heads an agency he proposed to eliminate during his failed 2012 presidential campaign.
The recent Dancing with the Stars contestant was a vocal critic of Mr Trump, calling him a "barking carnival act" and a "cancer on conservatism" before he dropped out of his second unsuccessful bid for the White House in 2015.
As governor of Texas, Mr Perry called for lighter regulation on the oil industry and referred to the science around climate change as "unsettled".
Environmental activists are concerned Mr Perry will shift the department's focus on renewable energy toward fossil fuels.
He also sits on the board of directors at Energy Transfer Partners, the company behind the controversial Dakota Access Pipeline in North Dakota.
Betsy DeVos - Education Secretary
Betsy DeVos became the second woman nominated for a cabinet position when Mr Trump named her as education secretary.
Mrs DeVos, a wealthy Republican Party donor and a former Michigan Republican Party chairwoman, said she was honoured to accept the appointment.
However, in an interview last March she described Mr Trump as "an interloper" who didn't represent the Republican Party.
Mrs DeVos is an advocate of Republican-favoured charter schools, which are publicly funded and set up by teachers, parents, or community groups, outside the state school system.
She also previously supported the Common Core education standards that Mr Trump and many conservatives have pilloried.
Mr Trump called her "a brilliant and passionate education advocate" but she was criticised after appearing to struggle at times during her nomination hearing.
Her support of charter schools and lack of political experience have generated fierce opposition, with two Republicans voting against her nomination.
Secretary of Labor - ?
Fast-food executive Andrew Puzder became the first Trump nominee to fail to secure a nomination.
The CKE Restaurants chief executive's opposition to raising the minimum wage, overtime laws and mandatory break-time for workers drew the ire of union groups.
Some of his staff at burger chains such as Carl's Jr and Hardee's claimed they were victims of wage theft or sexual harassment in the workplace.
The fallout from a rancorous 1980s divorce also returned to dog him.
But perhaps most damagingly, Mr Puzder admitted failing to pay taxes on an undocumented housekeeper who worked for him for up to five years.
Ryan Zinke - Secretary of the Interior
The former Navy SEAL has been picked to lead the agency that oversees federal land, including national parks such as Yosemite and Yellowstone.
He is a former congressman for Montana, where he was raised near Glacier National Park, on the Canadian border.
"As a former Navy SEAL, he has incredible leadership skills and an attitude of doing whatever it takes to win", Mr Trump said in a statement announcing his selection.
Mr Zinke has bucked his party on the issue of privatisation or transfer of public lands to states, which he believes should remain under federal control.
Environmental advocacy groups largely condemned the pick, with the Sierra Club saying that "Zinke is firmly in the past, clinging to plans to mine, drill and log public lands to benefit corporate polluters, supporting dangerous and dirty projects like the Keystone XL pipeline, and opposing efforts to clean up our air".
Scott Pruitt - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator
The Oklahoma attorney general and well-known climate change sceptic will be leading the federal agency tasked with protecting the environment.
Mr Pruitt's appointment came as he led a 28-state effort to halt President Obama's Clean Power Plan, which aimed to limit emissions from coal-fired plants; a plan that the EPA has been in charge of enforcing.
Mr Pruitt has called the EPA's work "unlawful and overreaching" and he has expressed doubt about the scientific evidence showing that human activity is causing the planet's temperature to warm.
"That debate is far from settled," Mr Pruitt said about climate change.
"Scientists continue to disagree about the degree and extent of global warming and its connection to the actions of mankind," he told an audience in May 2016, but he told his confirmation hearing he did not believe climate change was a hoax.
Environmental groups expressed alarm at Mr Pruitt's appointment.
"Having Scott Pruitt in charge of the US Environmental Protection Agency is like putting an arsonist in charge of fighting fires," said Michael Brune, executive director of the Sierra Club.
Stephen Bannon - Chief Strategist
Though not a cabinet appointment, it is already clear Mr Bannon wields immense influence behind the scenes as one of Mr Trump's key advisers.
The former Breitbart News executive is the president's senior counsellor, though technically he works as "equal partners" with Mr Priebus, creating twin power bases in the West Wing.
However, within two weeks of his arrival in the White House, Mr Bannon was added to the National Security Council at the expense of the joint chiefs of staff - an unprecedented move.
A number of critics have accused Mr Bannon, a former Goldman Sachs banker, of promoting extreme views.
The firebrand conservative helped transform Breitbart into the leading mouthpiece of the party's fringe, anti-establishment wing.
The combative site serves up an anti-establishment agenda that critics accuse of xenophobia and misogyny. Under Mr Bannon, it became one of the most-read conservative news and opinion sites in the US.
Born in Virginia in 1953, Mr Bannon spent four years in the navy before completing an MBA at Harvard. He then went into investment banking and, after a spell with Goldman Sachs, moved successfully into media financing.
He shifted into film production, working in Hollywood before branching out into independent political documentary making, paying homage to former US President Ronald Reagan, former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin and the Tea Party movement.
Through this work he met Andrew Breitbart, a staunchly conservative media entrepreneur who wanted to create a site that challenged what he saw as liberal-dominated mainstream media.
When Andrew Breitbart died of a heart attack in 2012, Mr Bannon took over as head of Breitbart News and drove it forward.
Stephen Miller - Senior Policy Adviser
Mr Miller was a top aide to Jeff Sessions before he joined the Trump campaign.
He often warmed up crowds before Mr Trump took the stage at rallies on the campaign trail and was subsequently named the national policy director for Mr Trump's transition team. He also served as the campaign's chief speechwriter.
As a senior adviser, Mr Miller manages White House policy staff, speechwriting functions and ensure the implementation of the president-elect's policy. He belongs to the Bannon camp within the White House, rather than the traditional Republican base of power held by Mr Priebus.
"Stephen played a central and wide-ranging role in our primary and general election campaign," Mr Trump said.
"He is deeply committed to the America First agenda, and understands the policies and actions necessary to put that agenda into effect."
Mr Miller was considered a "behind-the-scene architect of the successful effort to kill comprehensive immigration reform in 2014", according to a Politico profile of him earlier this year.
Sean Spicer - White House press secretary
Mr Spicer was thrust to the fore on only his first full day in the job, attacking members of the press for their reporting on the low numbers attending Mr Trump's inauguration. His confrontational approach to the job has continued since then and has become a subject of mockery on the Saturday Night Live comedy show.
He is not a new hand at managing negative press coverage, having previously served as spokesman and chief strategist for the Republican National Committee (RNC) and has long criticised coverage of his party and of Mr Trump.
He took the post of communications director at the RNC in 2011, a time when it "was deep in debt and had a badly tarnished brand", according to the Republican Party website.
He is said to have helped turn around its fortunes by boosting the social media team, leading rapid response efforts to combat attacks, setting up an in-house video and production team and expanding the use of surrogates - people who can publicly appear on behalf of candidates, defend them and boost their appeal.
Mr Spicer has not shied away from criticising Mr Trump in the past. In July 2015, speaking on behalf of the RNC after Mr Trump questioned Republican Senator John McCain's status as a war hero, he said that there was "no place in our party or our country for comments that disparage those who have served honourably".
Kellyanne Conway - Counsellor to the President
The Republican strategist and veteran pollster serves as the highest-ranking woman in the White House after having earlier been considered for the role of press secretary.
"Kellyanne Conway has been a trusted advisor and strategist who played a crucial role in my victory. She is a tireless and tenacious advocate of my agenda and has amazing insights on how to effectively communicate our message," Mr Trump said in a statement.
The mother of four young children was promoted as Mr Trump's third campaign manager in August 2016 as part of another staff shake-up after the Republican convention.
She has been praised as the "Trump whisperer" and became the first woman to run a successful US presidential campaign.
Ms Kelly joined Mr Trump's team in July after working for a super PAC that supported Mr Trump's primary rival, Senator Ted Cruz.
She has spent most of her career helping conservative politicians court female voters through her company, The Polling Company Inc/Woman Trend.
Hope Hicks - Director of Strategic Communications
Ms Hicks served as Mr Trump's press secretary and handled media requests during his campaign.
The fashion model-turned-spokeswoman previously worked as a publicist for Ivanka Trump's fashion label before entering politics with Mr Trump's bid for the White House.
Though she rarely speaks in public, Ms Hicks handled most of Mr Trump's campaign communications on her own until the New York businessman hired more staff over the summer.
He ran Mr Trump's social media operations and was recently named the president-elect's director of social media for his transition team.
Mr Scavino first met the New York billionaire as a teenage caddie working at one of Mr Trump's golf courses and later rose to a senior position within the Trump Organization.
A former model, born in Slovenia, Melania married Donald Trump in January 2005.
She stood by her husband after video footage emerged during the campaign in which he boasted about groping women. In July 2016 she made headlines after making a speech at the Republican National Convention, which she was accused of plagiarising from one made by Michelle Obama in 2008.
In an October interview with CNN, she was asked what she would change about her husband. She replied: "His tweeting".
She has vowed to stay in New York with their son Barron until he finishes his school term, when they are both expected to move to the White House.
Perhaps the best-known of Donald Trump's children, the only daughter of his marriage to Ivana, his first wife. A model in her early years, she was a vice-president at The Trump Organization, before stepping down when her father became president. She was also a judge on her father's reality TV show The Apprentice.
Her brother Donald Junior says Ivanka is the favourite child and is referred to as "Daddy's little girl".
She was given a level of authority in the family business that none of his wives ever had and is said to have handled some of the company's biggest deals.
Since Mr Trump became president, she has regularly been seen at his side. She, rather than the First Lady, travelled with him to an air base in early February 2017 to mark the return of the body of a soldier killed in a raid in Yemen.
She converted to Judaism after marrying Jared Kushner in 2009.
As a successful businesswoman and mother, she appealed to female voters who may have been put off by some of Mr Trump's comments about women.
In a speech to the Republican National Congress, she backed her father to support women's rights: "As a mother myself, of three young children, I know how hard it is to work while raising a family. And I also know that I'm far more fortunate than most. American families need relief. Policies that allow women with children to thrive should not be novelties, they should be the norm."
Mr Trump's son-in-law is the son of a prominent New York property developer and was the owner of the weekly Observer paper in New York for 10 years.
The quietly-spoken Mr Kushner has become one of Mr Trump's closest advisers. He exerted a powerful influence over the Trump campaign - including digital strategy and top-level hires - and has carried that clout into the White House.
Usually camera-shy and happy to operate behind the scenes, Mr Kushner is a vastly wealthy property developer and publisher. He owns 666 Fifth Avenue, a skyscraper a few blocks down from Trump Tower, and in 2006, at just 25, he bought the once-venerable New York Observer newspaper.
He has not been given an official position within the Trump administration but Mr Kushner has been named alongside three of Mr Trump's children in the transition team and he is said to have the president-elect's ear.
An Orthodox Jew, he is reported to have angered members of his own family when he wrote a defence of Donald Trump's use of the Star of David in a tweet attacking Hillary Clinton.
Jared Kushner was born and raised in comfort in Livingston, New Jersey, alongside two sisters and a brother. His grandparents had escaped Poland during the war, arriving in the US in 1949, and his father Charles made his fortune as a New Jersey property mogul.
Mr Kushner and Mr Trump share a complete lack of political experience, but Mr Trump has praised his son-in-law for being "very good at politics" and fully trusts his judgement. When controversial campaign manager Corey Lewandowski was fired from the campaign in June 2016, it was reported that Mr Kushner, having clashed with Mr Lewandowski, had pushed for him to get the chop.
Donald Trump's daughter by his second wife Marla Maples is a former actress and TV personality.
She is an avid user of both Twitter and Instagram, where her posts depict a glamorous lifestyle.
She kept a relatively low profile during the election campaign and is not thought to have the same input or influence as her siblings.
But she earned her father's praise for her "fantastic" convention speech, in which she said her father was a "natural-born encourager".
Donald Trump Jr
Donald Trump's eldest son from his first marriage to Ivana. Now executive vice-president of The Trump Organization, he married Vanessa Haydon after being introduced to her at a fashion show by his father.
His rise has not been free from controversy. His and brother Eric's taste for hunting big game was criticised after photos emerged showing them posing with dead animals including a leopard and a crocodile. Donald Jr was also holding the severed tail of an elephant.
The third child of Mr Trump's marriage to Ivana, he is also an executive vice-president of the Trump Organization.
He is president of the Trump Winery in Virginia and oversees Trump golf clubs. In 2006, he also set up the Eric Trump Foundation, which has pledged $28m to a research hospital which helps children battling life-threatening diseases.
He may have broken the law on election day by tweeting a picture of his ballot paper, saying it was an "incredible honour to vote for my father".