Activists say children were among at least 15 civilians killed in the raid by an unidentified jet.
The White House had warned President Bashar al-Assad his military would "pay a very heavy price".
Doha says its neighbour's stance is "contrary to the principles" of international relations.
The world's Muslims celebrate Eid al-Fitr festival
The horrors of Yemen's spiralling cholera crisis
The revealing photos left behind by young IS militants
Calculating the start of Eid al-Fitr is surprisingly complicated
A guide to dealing with nosy family relatives at Eid
Inside the fight for Islamic State's 'capital'
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