Dagaalkii koowaad ee adduunka WW1

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Horaantii 1914 ma jirin cid saadaalin kartay in bilo gudahood dunidu ay galayso dagaal baahsan oo si ba’an loogu hoobto.

Meelo badan sanadihii ka horeeyay dagaalka WW1 waxay ahaayeen xilli nabad iyo barwaaqo ay ka jireen Europe, balse ma ahayn kuwo aanay xiisad ka maqnayn.

Dunida ayaa waxaa xilligaas ku badnaa rabitaanka Imbaridooriyadaha ee kuwii loogu yeerayay ‘Quwadaha waawayn’, ku dhowaadna labaatan sano ayaa Europe ay hub uruursanaysay si ay isugu diyaariso dagaal wayn.

Sanadihii 1870-71 Dagaalkii Franco-Prussian ayaa ku dhamaaday Faransiiska oo laga adkaaday iyo Jarmal midaysan oo uu hormuud u yahay Otto von Bismarck.

Si khibradaysan ayuu isugu dheeli-tiray xiriirka France, Austria-Hungary iyo Russia balse wuxuu xafiiska ka tagay 1890, Xiriiradan ayaa noqday kuwo ku xiran nidaam aan xasiloonayn oo cadaawad ka dhex dhaliya isbahaysiga Germany, Austria-Hungary iyo Italy oo ay iska soo horjeedaan isbahaysiga sadexda dal ee Britain, France iyo Russia.

Boqortooyadii Ottoman

Lahaanshaha sawirka government art collection
Image caption Boqortooyadii Ottoman

Imbaradooriyadii Ottoman ee Turkiga oo loo yaqaanay ‘Ninka xanuunsan ee Europe’, oo ka soo horjeeday casriyaynta iyo warshadaynta ayaa tag darnayd marka loo barbardhigo dhinacyadan ‘Quwadaha Waawayn’. Waxaa kaloo sii daciifiyay dagaalkii Balkan-ka ee sanadkii 1912 oo sii yareeyay xuduudihii Imbaradooriyadda iyo saamayntii ay lahaydba.

Russia waxay ka adkaatay Imbaradooriyadda Ottoman sanadkii 1878, taas oo keentay in dib loo asteeyo xuduudaha Balkan-ka, iyadoo Serbia, Montenego iyo Romania ay xornimo buuxda ka heleen maamulkii Turkiga, lana abuuray Bulgaria oo uu Amiir ka talinayay. Waxaa sii kordhay saamaynta Ruushku uu ku lahaa dalalka Balkan-ka.

Sanadihii ka horeeyay 1914, ayaa la arkayay dhaqdhaqaaqyo wadaniyiin iyo gooni u goosi doon ah oo halis galiyay midnimada iyo dalal dhowr ah oo ay ku jiraan Austria-Hungary iyo Germany. Sanadkii 1905 kacdoon ka dhacay Russia ayaa ku dhowaaday in uu afgambiyo hogaamiyihii Russia ee ‘the Czar’.

Habeenkii dagaal ka horeeyay, Britain, France iyo Russia waxay walwal ka qabeen quwadda military ee Germany, iyadoo France iyo Russia ay sii kordhinayeen xooggooda military.

Balse, wali ma jirin wax qasbya dagaal buuxa oo Europe ka dhex dhaca. Kadib qarni nabad jirtay, dalal badan oo Europe ah ayaa u qaatay in dhaqaalaha dalalka oo aad isugu xirmay in dagaal dhexmara suurtagalnimadiisu ay aad u fogayd.

Saan-saan Dagaal

Lahaanshaha sawirka Other
Image caption Ciidamadii dagaalka ka qaybgalay

Waxaa kadib taariikhdu markay ahayd bishii June 28, 1914, lagu dilay Sarajevo Archduke Franz-Ferdinand.

Dhacdadan ma ahayn in ay dagaal horseeddo balse Austria-Hungary ayaa u adeegsatay suurtagalnimada warar aan la xaqiijin ee ahaa in Serbia ku lug lahayd in ay u tahay fursad ay si kama dambays ah ugu burburiso Serbia.

Bishii July 5-6, boqorka iyo ra’iisul wasaaraha Germnay, ayaa u xaqiijiyay safiirka Austria ee Berlin in uu ku taageerayo hadii ay Serbia weerarto. Suurtagal ma ahayn in tallaabadan ay u aragto xukuumadda Austria-Hungary in uu dagaal guud ay dhalin karto – waxay rajaynaysay guul military oo deg deg ah oo ay ka hesho deriskeeda dhibka badan.

Bishii July 23, waqti kama dambays ah ayaa loo qabtay Serbia. Laba maalmood kadibna, Seerbiyiintu way soo jawaabeen, waxaana ay aqbaleen wixii laga dalbaday oo dhan marka laga reebo laba qodob oo u ogolaanayay in maamulkii Austria-Hungary uu si toos ah u faragaliyo arrimaha gudaha Serbia.

Abaabul Dagaal

Lahaanshaha sawirka Other

Inkastoo jawaabta Serbia ay ahayd mid xal raadis ah, hadana maamulka Austria-Hungary wuxuu ku dhawaaqay dagaal bishii July 28, taas oo horseedday dhacdooyin isdaba jog ah oo dhaliyay in dagaalku uu dalal kale ku baaho. Russia ayaa markiiba ku baaqay in uu qayb ahaan ciidankiisa diyaariyo si uu ugu qasbo Austria-Hungary ay dib uga laabato duulaankeeda.

Bishii July, 31, ayaa Russia waxay amartay si buuxda in ciidamada ay u diyaariso, iyadoo ka jawaabaysa Germany oo tallaabo noocaas ah qaaday. Dhinaca kale maamulka London, dagaalka la isku diyaariyay wuxuu keenay in suuqyadii maaliyadda ay cabsi dareemaan , oo suuqa isdhaafsiga saamiyadana la xiro markii ugu horaysay tan iyo sanadkii 1773.