Kafeega oo qatar ku jira

Dhadhanka kafeegu ma isbadeli doonaa iyadoo cimilada dunidu ay sii kululaanayso?

Dadka cabbo kafeega ayaa sheegay inuu sii kharaaranayo, qiimihiisuna sii koradhayo iyadoo ay sii yaranayaan dhul-beereedka ku haboon kafeega, sida ay sheegeen seynisyahanno ka tirsan London Kew gardens

Wax soo saarka kafeega Itoobiya oo ah dalka ugu kafeega sooo saarka badan Afrika ayaa la sheegayaa in qarni ka dib ay xaaladdu isbadeli doonto sida lagu sheegay warbixin maanta la daabcay (https://www.nature.com/articles/nplants201781)

'Itoobiya iyo caalamka oo dhan haddii aysan waxba ka qabanin arrintan waxaa yaraan doono kafeega, dhadhankiisuna wuu sii xumaan doonaa'', ayuu yiri Dr Aaron Davis, oo ka mid ah cilmibaarayaasha warbixintan oo la hadlay BBC-da

kafee la'aan miyaa dhici doonto?

Cabitaanka kafeega ayaa laba jibaarmay 35-kii sano ee la soo dhaafay...

large coffee cup
large coffee cup

4.9bn kilo

1980

9.5bn kilo

2016

Beerashadu waxay u nugushahay cimiliada xun

Bilyan oo kiilogaraam

coffee_chart

10

8

6

4

2

0

1980

2016

Waxaa ugu wacan isbadalka cimilada, goobaha kordhaya ee laga beerto kafeega, waxaana la qiyaasayaa in ay aad u yaraadaan

Saamiga goobaha hadda ku haboon soo saarka miraha kafeega nooca Arabica

Heerka hadda

48%Bartamaha America

60%Brazil

70%Koonfurta Bari Asia

Xigasho: Ururka caalamiga ah ee kafeega, Christian Bunn (Joornaalka isbadalka cimilada)

Isticmaalka kafeega ayaa lagu wadaa inuu ka bato soo saarkiisa sanadkii seddxadaad oo xiriir ah, sida uu saadaaliyay guddiga ganacsiga ee dowladdaha ku midoobeen ee ururka kafeega caalamiga ah(ICO)

Kuwa beerta bunka ayaa ku khasban inay daboolaan baahidaasi. Sidaas darteed ayaa kafeega uu gabaabsi nqoday, sida ay sheegtay hay'adda caalamiga ah ee kafeega ee ICO. Dalalka Brazil iyo Vietnam oo ah labada dal ee soo saara bunka ugu badan ayaa xaaladda hawadooda ay dagan tahay sanadkan, waxaana lagu wadaa inay soo saaraan bun badan.

Xaaladda cimilada isbadeleyso ayaa walaac ku reebtay labaduba kuwa soo saara bunka iyo kuwa cabbo

Sida uu leeyahay Dr Tim Schilling, agaasimaha machadka cilmibaarista ee kafeega adduunka, oo ah urur ay maalgaliyaan soo saarayaasha dunida ee kafeega "Soo saaridda kafee heer sare ayaa halis aad ah waxaa ku haya isbadalka cimilada, cuduro iyo cayayaan, cadaadiska dhulka, iyo yaraanshaha shaqo - iyo baahida loo qabo kafeega oo sii kordhaysa sanad wala."

"Natiijada caqligalka ah, ayaa ah in sicirku uu sare u kici doono,," ayuu raaciyay

Beeralay Itoobiyaan ah oo guraya miraha kafeega

Itoobiya: Hoyga kafeega

Waxaa la saadaalinayaa inuu ku imaan doono hoos u dhac 60% ah goobaha kafeega laga soo saaro ee dalka Itoobiya iyadoo sabab looga dhigayo heerkulka dunida oo sare u kici doono 4C marka la gaaro dabayaaqada qarnigan.

Qiyaasta sare u kaca heer kulka ee 4C ayaa lagu saleeyay iyadoo la saadaalinayo in gaaska hawada lagu sii daayo uu ku socon doono xaddigan ilaa iyo sanadda 2100.

Xitaa haddii aad qaadato qiyaasaha kale ee isbedelka cimilada, ayaa waxay muujinayaan in soo saarka kafeega ee Itoobiya uu hoos u dhici doono 55%, sida lagu sheegay daraasadda Kew

Haddii xaaladu ay sidan ku sii socoto waxay dharbaaxo weyn ku tahay soo saarka kafeega ee Itoobiya mustaqbalka fog'', ayuu yiri Justin Moat, oo ka mid ah qorayaasha warbixintan

Ma caawin karo, oo qoyskayga waxba uma hayo Jamal Kasim, soo saare kafeega Itoobiya

Sida soo saarka kafeega Itoobiya isu badeli kara

Qariidado muujinaya isbadalka dhulka ku haboon beerashada kafeega ee dalka Itoobiya sida laga soo xigtay Kew Gardens

Balse, Dr Davis wuxuu aad u adkaynayaa in aysan wax walba xumayn. Badalka goobaha lagu beero kafeega, oo isla markaana goob gaar ah loo calaamadeeyo kafeega in lagu beero iyo dib u abuur loo sameeyo, waxay keeni karaan koror goobaha ku haboon in lagu beero miraha kafeega, sida lagu ogaaday daraasadda Kew.

"Waxaa jira suurtagalnimada in la dhimo qaar ka mid ah xumaanta oo la kordhiyo aagga laga beero kafeega afar iyo bar jibaar, marka loo barbardhigo waxa hadda jira," ayuu yiri Dr Davis.

Muuqaalkan kuma daawan kartid aaladda aad istcimaaleyso
"howdka ayaa isku badalaya lama degaan" Nolosha beeralayda kafeega ee bariga Itoobiya

Muuqaal iyo wareysiyo laga soo qaaday bariga Itoobiya horraantii 2016. Abaar ayaa ku dhufatay qeybo ka mid ah dalka iyadoo 7.7 milyan oo qof ay u baahan yihiin gargaar deg deg ah.

Kafeega waxaa ku nool dad ku dhow 15 milyan oo Itoobiyaan ah, waa 16% dadwaynaha.

Beeralayda bariga dalkaasi oo diiranaanta cimiladu ay saameynta ugu badan ku yeelatay ayaa durbaba dareemay hoos u dhaca soo saarka kafeega

10-kii sano ee la soo dhaafay tan iyo markii geedaha kafeega la abuuray, Jamal Kasim oo beeralay ah, wuxuu dareemay isbadal xoog leh oo ku dhacay waxa ka soo go'a beertiisa.

"Dhowrkii sano ee ugu horeeyay, waxaan ka helnay beerta miro badan, balse hadda waxba ka soo go'aan beerta. Qoyskayga ma quudin karo," ayuu yiri.

Miraha kafeega oo qallalaya

Brazil: Soo saaraha ugu sareeya ee dunida

Itoobiya waxaa dhici karta in aysan kali ku ahayn dhibaatada soo wajihi karta wax soo saarka kafeega. Daraasad ay daabacday hay'adda guddiga dowladaha ku midoobeen ee isbadalka cimilada (IPCC), waa guddi khubarro ah oo ay Qaramada Midoobay taageerto, wuxuu tilmaamay isna dhibaatooyin kuwa Itoobiya la mid ah oo haysta Brazil.

Sadexdii sano ee la soo dhaafay, roobka da'ay wuu ka hooseeyaa celceliska roobabkii la filayay, waxaana dhibaato ka soo gaarta miraha kafeega. Inacio Brioschi, Brazilian beera kafeega

Koror dhan ilaa 3 cabirka kulaylka ah iyo 15% koror roobka ah wixii ka horeeyay heerka beeraha kafeega ee laba ka mid ah gobolada soo saara kafeega ee dalka Brazil, Minas Gerais iyo Sao Paulo, ayay dhici kartaa in wax soo saarka deegaankaas uu iska soo dhimo 70-75% ee goboladan dhulkooda marka la isku geeyo ilaa 20-25%.

Qariidado muujinaya saameynta abaarta ee dhulka ku haboon beerashada kafeega ee dalka Brazil

Labadii sano ee la soo dhaafay, abaartii ugu xumayd ee Brazil tan iyo inta la diiwaangaliyay bilowgii ku dhowaad qarni ka hor, ayaa si xoog leh ugu dhufatay gobolada kafeega abuura. Soo saaridda kafeega ee gobolka Minas Gerais, oo hoy u ah in ka badan kala bar kafeega Brazil, waxaa uu hoos u dhacay ilaa 20% marka la barbardhigo abaartii 2014 ee ku dhufatay aagga kafeega lagu beero.

Soo saarka kafeega tayada sare leh ee Carabiya ayaa hoos u dhac ku yimid intii u dhexeysay July 2014 ilaa June 2015. Jilaal daba dheeraaday iyo heerkulka oo sare u kacay ayaa sababtay in kafeega kharaar ee Robusta ee gobolka Espirito Santo ee Brazil uu isna hoos u dhaca beerashadiisa

Xitaa hadda gobolka oo dhan, kaydadka ay beeralaydu adeegsanayeen ee waraabka ayaa qalalay, iyadoo saraakiisha gobolka ay mamnuuceen ama xayiraado ku soo rogeen waraabinta beeraha magaalooyin dhowr ah.

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Sawirro lagu qaaday Satellite-ka oo muujinaya  keydka waraabka Jaguar ee dalka Brazil sanaddii 2014  iyo saameynta ay abaartu ku yeelatay

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Sawirro lagu qaaday Satellite-ka oo muujinaya  keydka waraabka Jaguar ee dalka Brazil sanaddii 2013

Muuqaallo lagu qaaday satellite-ka ayaa muujinaya isbadal heerka biyaha ee kaydka Jaguari ee Sao Paulo, Brazil kadib abaartii 2014. Muuqaalada laga helayo Nasa Earth Observatory (kormeerka dhulka ee Nasa, oo lagu qaaday satallite-ka Landsat

Afartii sano ee la soo dhaafay, heerka roobka ayaa ka hooseeyay celceliska, waxaana dhibku gaaray miraha ka soo go'a beeraha," ayuu yiri Inacio Brioschi, oo ku beerta kafeega gobolka Espirito Santo.

Brioschi aya lumisay kalabar wax soo saarkeedii sanaddii 2016, sandakana waxa lagaa yaabaa in hoos u dhacaasi uu gaari kara 60%

Muuqaalkan laguma ciyaari karo aaladda aad isticmaaleyso
"Ma jiraan wax la soo guro" La tacaalidda abaarta ee Brazil

Muuqaalo iyo wareysiyo ay BBC-du ka duubtay gobolka Espirito Santo ee dalka Brazil. BBC-da ayaa isla beeraydaasi la hadashay mar kale bishii May 2017. Waxay sheegeen in xaaladda ay ka soo dartay sanadkan.

Hal abaar oo kaliya looma aanayn karo isbadalka cimilada, ayuu leeyahay Dr Peter Baker, oo ka tirsan barnaamijka Kafeega iyo cimilada, guddi ay maalgaliyaan qayb ahaan soo saarayaasha kafeega. Hase yeeshee, dhacdooyinkan hawada ka sii daraysay, ayaa waxay u taagan tahay culays xoog leh oo soo wajahay mehradda kafeega.

"Xaqiiqado oo kaliya ma aha in hawada kululaatay ay si joogto ah kor ugu socotay ’s not just the fact that temperatures are going up steadily, these major climatic events that can last for months are most damaging," ayuu yiri Dr Baker.

Daraasad la xiriirta ogaanshaha cimilada ayaa taageertay fikirka ah in kulanka xad dhaafka ah uu ka imanayo isbadalka cimilada, sida uu sheegay Richard Betts, madaxa machadka cilmibaarista saamaynta cimilada ee xarunta Hadley ee xafiiska UK Met.

Abaar iyo sare u kaca heerkulka ayaa ka tagay saameyn ballaaran

"Iyadoo uu sii kordhayo heerkulka adduunka oo dhan, ayay xaq tahay in la yiraahdo, marka abaaruhu dhacaan, saamayntooda inta badan aad ayay u daran tahay waayo kulaylka hawada ayaa keenayo uuro kulul oo dhulka sii qalajinaysa," Mr Betts ayaa yiri.

Beeraha kafeega ee Jaguare, gobolka Espirito Santo ee Brazil

Teknolojiyaddu ma ilaalin kartaa mustaqbalka kafeega?

Inkastoo isbedelka cimiladu ay saameyn ku yeelatay beeralayda Brazil iyo Itoobiya oo la saadalinayo inuu hoos u dhici doono soo saarka kafeega ee dalalkaasi, haddana dalal kale oo beerta kafeega ayaa dhinaca kale la saadaalinayaa inuu sare u kici doono dalagooda. Sida uu aaminsan yahay Dr Baker waxaa taasi sabab u ah beerista keymaha macmalka ah.

"Marka laga reebo Brazil, oo horumarinta teknolojiyadda ay u muuqato in ay mas'uul ka tahay kororka wax soo saarka, ku dhowaad dhamaan wax soo saarka kafeega ayaa hadda si deg deg ah u ballaaranaya, ka hortagga nabaadguurka ayaa ah xogta aasaasiga ah ee dhulka cusub ee lagu beerayo kafeega," ayuu yiri.

Muddada dheer, laga yaabee in teknolojiyadda ay door ka qaadan karto muhiim ah sidii loo xaqiijin lahaa mustaqbalka kafeega.

Sanadkii 2014, baaritaanka sheybaar ee buuxa faraca miraha kafeega Arabica ayaa la shaaciyay si loo dadajiyo qorshaha xulashada miraha awoodda u leh in ay u adkaystaan xaaladaha kulul.

Waxaa intaa dheer, Machadka daraasadda kafeega adduunka ayaa ka shaqaynaya barnaamij lagu abuurayo miraha beeraha si "dib loogu abuuro" kafeega Arabica, oo loo helo "miro si ka wanaagsan u koraya" si loo kordhiyo kala duwanaanshaha, oo looga dhigo miro u adkaysan kara isbadalka cimilada.

Balse ma aha waxa si dhaqso ah u dhacaya – sanado badan ayay qaadan kartaa. Kuwa cabbo kafeega ayaa soo wajihi karo sare u kaca qiimaha kafeega.


U Mahadcelin

Waxaa qaabeeyay Tom Nurse, James Offer iyo Luke Keast. Waxaa gacan ka geystay Steven Connor iyo Becky Rush. Muuqaalada iyo Fiidiyowyada waxaa sameeyay Colin Cosier iyo Rafael Barifouse. Fiidiyowyada kale waxaa soo saaray Joe Inwood iyo Vladimir Hernandez. Waxaa qoray oo soo saaray Nassos Stylianou iyo John Walton. Muuqaalada dayaxgacmeedka lagu qaaday waxaa laga soo xigtay Nasa, Earth Observatory waxaana qaaday Lancet

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