Leon Clarke scored the only goal as Coventry extended Stevenage's winless run to six games in League One.
The Sky Blues created the better chances early on, Connor Thomas coming closest with a deflected shot.
Striker Clarke netted his sixth of the season when he latched on to Robin Shroot's lazy back pass.
The visitors were not troubled until Jon Ashton shot at keeper Joe Murphy late on, but Boro find themselves level on points with bottom side Tranmere.
For Coventry, who started the season on minus 10 points, it was a first win in three games and lifted them up to 18th.
VIEW FROM THE DRESSING ROOM
Stevenage Manager Graham Westley told BBC Three Counties Radio:
"This road back from losing ways to winning ways was never going to be an easy one and we've seen a number of performances in recent weeks way below the level. Today there was a lot more about us that I liked.
"The side is going in the right direction. It's an error that's cost us, take the error out and it could have been a different result. In recent weeks as we've played top six sides we've looked miles off the pace, today I thought we looked much closer to it.
"It's important when you're not getting the results that you can see the progress you're making. I think the lads know there is progress being made, that we're not at the level, but it was very much a more Stevenage performance today.
"I said in my programme notes today the club had lost fourteen in seventeen when I arrived, I've lost 11 of the seventeen now that I've been here for. That's a marginal improvement but Rome wasn't built in a day and we're nipping the losing habits in the bud."
Coventry City manager Steven Pressley told BBC Coventry and Warwickshire:
"It was a brilliant team performance from us. Full of energy, full of guts, full of courage. I was really proud of them.
"Coming away from home and winning 1-0 was an exceptional result. This was a pivotal day for us because we've proved today that we can win these kinds of games.
"I'm really pleased for our supporters as well - they were terrific.
"I want us to be an exciting team, but I also want us to be a team who can win in this manner. It's a big moment for us this season, winning this match 1-0.
"We thoroughly deserved it. A very mature performance from a young team. They are a brilliant team of players and they couldn't work harder for this football club.."
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