Tour de France: Is cycling getting cleaner?

BBC Sport takes a look at cycling's premier event, the Tour de France, to see how the competition has been affected by drug cheats since 1998, and whether the issues to hit the sport have improved in recent years.

Where have the drug cheats come from?

Australia - 2

Austria - 1

Belgium -2

Canada - 2

Colombia - 1

Denmark - 2

France - 15

Germany - 10

Great Britain - 0

Italy - 11

Kazakhstan - 5

Lithuania - 1

Luxembourg - 4

Netherlands - 3

Russia - 5

Slovenia - 1

Spain - 36

Switzerland - 8

USA - 21

How many drug cheats featured in the Tour?

1998

Seven Italians tested positive while two were sanctioned without a test and one admitted without a test.

Three Spanish, four German, five Swiss and five French cyclists tested positive.

A pair of Australian and Dutch cyclists admitted without a test while two of their compatriots tested positive.

1999

Out of three Americans, including the winner, two tested positive and one admitted without testing.

Out of three Swiss cyclists, one tested positive, one was sanctioned and the other admitted without a test.

One French and one Belgian cyclist were sanctioned without a test, while one Spanish and one Colombian cyclist tested positive.

2000

Five cyclists tested positive including the winner from America, three cyclists from France and one from Belgium.

Two more cyclists from Spain and France were sanctioned without a test.

2001

Five cyclists tested positive including the American winner and three cyclists from Spain while one Dutch cyclist admitted without a test.

2002

Five cyclists tested positive. Two from America, two from Spain and one from Lithuania.

2003

Seven athletes tested positive with two coming from the States, two from Spain, one from Kazakhstan, one from Germany and one from France.

Two more Spanish cyclists were sanctioned without a test while one admitted without a test.

2004

Two cyclists from America tested positive with more failed tests coming from Germany and Belgium.

Four were sanctioned from Spain (two), Italy and Slovenia.

2005

There were six positive tests from America (three), Germany, Kazakhstan and France.

Four were sanctioned from Spain (two), Denmark and Russia.

2006

Three positive tests included the winner from America, France and Spain.

2007

Spain had four doping violations (three positive, one sanctioned) while Kazakhstan (two), Italy and America also failed tests.

2008

Spain, Austria, Luxembourg, Kazakhstan, Slovenia, France and Germany all had at least one failed drugs test.

Two from America and Spain were sanctioned later.

2009

Spain (two), America, Luxembourg and Russia all failed tests while another American was sanctioned later.

2010

The winner from Spain and one Russian cyclist failed a drugs test while one Canadian admitted without testing.

2011

America, Russia and Luxembourg all tested positive while one Spanish cyclist was sanctioned later.

2012

There were two positive tests from Russia and Luxembourg.

2013

Two Spanish cyclists broke anti-doping rules. One failed a drugs test while the other was sanctioned without a test.

2014

One Spanish cyclist was sanctioned without a test.

2015

One Italian cyclist tested positive.

Top Stories