The stereotypical Frenchman may no longer start the day with a shot of red wine to tuer le ver (kill the worm) followed by an espresso, but France is one of the top ten alcohol-consuming countries in the world. Wine, predictably, is the favourite tipple and there are dozens of wine-producing regions throughout France.
Wines in France are generally named after the location of the vineyard rather than the grape varietal, and there are strict regulations governing where, how and under what conditions grapes are grown.
Burgundy developed its reputation for viticulture during the reign of Charlemagne, when monks first began to make wine here. The vignerons of Burgundy generally only have small vineyards and produce small quantities of wine. Burgundy reds are produced with pinot noir grapes; the best vintages need 10 to 20 years to age. White wine is made from the chardonnay grape. The five main wine-growing areas are Chablis, Côte d'Or, Côte Chalonnaise, Mâcon and Beaujolais, which alone produces 13 different types of light gamay-based red wine.
Champagne, northeast of Paris, has been the centre for what is arguably France's best-known wine since the 17th Century when the innovative monk Dom Pierre Pérignon perfected a technique for making sparkling wine.
Champagne is made from the red pinot noir, the black pinot meunier or the white chardonnay grape. Each vine is vigorously pruned and trained to produce a small quantity of high-quality grapes. Indeed, to maintain exclusivity (and price), the designated areas where grapes used for Champagne can be grown and the amount of wine produced each year is limited. In 2008 the borders that confine the Champagne label were extended to include another 40 villages, increasing the value of their vineyards and its produce by tens of millions of euros.
3. The Loire Valley
The Loire's 700 sq km of vineyards rank it as the third-largest area in France for the production of quality wines. Although sunny, the climate here is humid and not all grape varieties thrive. Still, the Loire produces the greatest variety of wines of any region in the country (a particular speciality of the region is rosé). The most common grapes are the Muscadet, cabernet franc and chenin blanc varieties. Wines tend to be light and delicate. The most celebrated areas are Pouilly-Fumé, Vouvray, Sancerre, Bourgueil, Chinon and Saumur.
Alsace produces almost exclusively white wines - mostly varieties produced nowhere else in France - that are known for their clean, fresh taste and compatibility with the often heavy local cuisine. Unusually, some of the fruity Alsatian whites also go well with red meat. The vineyards closest to Strasbourg produce light red wines from pinot noir that are similar to rosé and are best served chilled.
Alsace's four most important varietal wines are riesling, known for its subtlety; the more pungent and highly regarded gewürztraminer; the robust pinot gris, which is high in alcohol; and muscat d'Alsace, which is not as sweet as that made with muscat grapes grown further south.
5. Rhône region
There are dramatic differences in the wines produced by the north and south regions. The northern vineyards produce red wines exclusively from the ruby-red syrah (shiraz) grape; the aromatic viognier grape is the most popular for white wines. The south is better known for quantity rather than quality. The vineyards are also more spread out and interspersed with fields of lavender and orchards of olives, pears and almonds. The grenache grape, which ages well when blended, is used in the reds, while the whites use the ugni blanc grape.
The article 'Lonely Planet's top five spots to pop corks in France' was published in partnership with Lonely Planet.