The Czech Republic consists of the ancient provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, with a mountainous rim on its western border with Germany. The Czech Republic also shares its northwestern border with Germany, and is bordered by Poland on the north, by Austria on the south, and by the Slovak Republic on the east.
It is completely landlocked within Central Europe, with a climate that is transitional between the milder and wetter conditions of Atlantic Europe and the more extreme conditions (severe winters and warm summers) found in Russia.
The country is hilly with much of its area rising over 1,000 m/3,250 ft. There is little difference of weather from one area to another and everywhere it can be changeable at all times of the year.
The longest spells of settled weather occur during calm but cold days in winter. The most unpleasant weather occurs in winter, when easterly winds from Russia may bring very low temperatures for several days on end. Spring and summer are the wettest seasons.
Summers are moderately warm, but fine weather is often broken by thunderstorms; extreme heat is rare. Spells of disturbed summer weather are often brought by disturbances originating over the northern Mediterranean.
Conditions in Bohemia are illustrated in the table for Prague.
Conditions in Moravia are illustrated in the table for Brno.
The number of wet days is rather less than in western Europe and the number of hours of sunshine rather more. Summer sunshine averages as much as eight hours per day.
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