This large central Asian republic, almost five times the size of France, includes extensive deserts as well as semi-arid steppes.
It is bordered by Russia on the north, the Caspian Sea on the west, China on the east, and by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan on the south. Part of eastern Kazakhstan belongs to the mountainous region on the borders of Russia and China.
In the steppes and deserts the summers are warm to hot but the heat is made more bearable by the low humidity. The winters are cold but generally dry and sunny. The table for Kazalinsk is representative of weather in western Kazakhstan.
The highest mountains of the east carry snow the year round. However, the east is a rather dry region considering its height. Winters are cold but spring comes earlier than farther north.
The table for Alma Ata illustrates conditions in the valleys of eastern Kazakhstan.
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