Erosion is a natural process which shapes cliffs. Over time, erosion can cause cliff collapse - therefore the coastline needs to be managed. Hard engineering involves building artificial structures which try to control natural processes. Each engineering strategy has its advantages and disadvantages.
Concrete walls that are placed at the foot of a cliff to prevent erosion. They are curved to reflect the energy back into the sea.
Large boulders placed at the foot of a cliff. They break the waves and absorb their energy.
Rocks are held in mesh cages and placed in areas affected by erosion.
Wooden or rock structures built out at right angles into the sea.