The structure of a leaf has adaptations so that it can carry out photosynthesis effectively.
A leaf needs:
Light absorption happens in the palisade mesophyll tissue of the leaf. Palisade cells are column-shaped and packed with many chloroplasts. They are arranged closely together so that a lot of light energy can be absorbed.
|Large surface area||Maximise light absorption|
|Thin||Short distance for carbon dioxide to diffuse into leaf cells|
|Cuticle||A waxy waterproof layer which reduces water loss, it is transparent to allow light through the leaf|
The stomata can open and close to:
Diffusion of carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapour into (or out of) the leaf is greatest when the stomata are open, during the day.