Immediately after the war, the Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for 'all the loss and damage' of the war.
During the 1920s, however, Germans vigorously denied this, and - during the period of appeasement in the 1930s - many people were prepared to blame other factors:
After World War Two, historians were less prepared to excuse Germany. In the 1960s, the German historian Fritz Fischer argued that the German leaders had a 'will to war', that they wanted to expand German power, and they wanted the situation in Europe to deteriorate into war. This is the view still held by many historians today.