The menstrual cycle

The female reproductive system includes a cycle of events called the menstrual cycle. It lasts about 28 days, but it can be slightly less or more than this. The cycle stops while a woman is pregnant. These are the main features of the menstrual cycle:

  • The start of the cycle, day 1, is when bleeding from the vagina begins. This is caused by the loss of the lining of the uterus, with a little blood. This is called menstruation or having a period.
  • By the end of about day 5, the loss of blood stops. The lining of the uterus begins to re-grow and an egg cell starts to mature in one of the ovaries.
  • At about day 14, the mature egg cell is released from the ovary. This is called ovulation. The egg cell travels through the oviduct towards the uterus.
  • If the egg cell does not meet with a sperm cell in the oviduct, the lining of the uterus begins to break down and the cycle repeats.
Menstrual cycle showing the lining of the uterus as it builds up, is maintained and then breaks down as menstruation occurs, over the course of 28 days.The thickness of the uterus lining varies during the menstrual cycle. An egg is released at about day 14

Fertilisation happens if the egg cell meets and joins with a sperm cell in the oviduct. The fertilised egg attaches to the lining of the uterus. The woman becomes pregnant, the lining of the uterus does not break down and menstruation does not happen.

Professor Robert Winston describes the process of ovulation in humans