Ammonia is an important industrial product used to make fertilisers, explosives and dyes. It is manufactured using the Haber process. This involves a reversible reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen:
N2(g) + 3H2(g) ⇌ 2NH3(g)
The reaction can reach a dynamic equilibrium.
In the Haber process:
Explain why iron is used in the Haber process.
Iron is a catalyst for the reaction. It increases the rate of the reaction without being used up in the reaction.
Explain why the unreacted hydrogen and nitrogen are recycled.
Recycling the unused reactants saves money and increases the effective (overall) yield.