Changes in temperature or physical state are caused by transfers of energy. Specific heat capacity determines the energy needed to change temperature, and specific latent heat is the energy needed to change state.
What is temperature a measure of?
The average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance
The average weight of the molecules in a substance
The average size of the molecules in a substance
Which of these has the largest total amount of thermal energy?
A teaspoon of hot water
A mug of hot water
A swimming pool of lukewarm water
Some energy is transferred to heat some water. Then three times as much water is heated for three times longer. How would the new temperature rise compare?
Nine times the temperature rise as before
Three times the temperature rise as before
The same temperature rise as before
In an experiment to find the specific heat capacity of a metal block, what can be done to reduce experimental error?
Heat the block up very slowly
Use a thermometer marked off every 2°C instead of every 1°C
Insulate the metal block to reduce heat transferring to the surroundings
How much energy is needed to raise the temperature of 0.5 g of lead by 10°C? (Specific heat capacity = 129 J/kg°C)
How do the particles in a solid move?
Randomly in all directions
They roll over each other
They vibrate around a fixed point
What is the energy change when 0.1 kg of molten lead freezes? (Specific latent heat of fusion = 22,400 J/kg)
What change of state happens when a substance in the solid state changes to the gas state?
How much energy is needed to turn 0.1 kg of oxygen gas into a liquid at the same temperature? (Specific latent heat of vaporisation = 213 kJ/kg)
Which part of a heating curve shows the changes of state?
The steepest lines
The horizontal lines
The vertical lines