# Required practical - investigate current - voltage graphs

There are different ways to investigate the relationship between and . In this practical activity, it is important to:

• measure and observe current and potential difference
• use appropriate apparatus and methods to measure current and potential difference for a , bulb and

A resistor

### Aim of the experiment

To investigate the relationship between current and potential difference for a resistor, bulb and diode.

### Method

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the first diagram.
2. Ensure that the power supply is set to zero at the start.
3. Record the reading on the and .
4. Use the to alter the potential difference.
5. Record the new readings on the voltmeter and ammeter.
6. Repeat steps three to four, each time increasing the potential difference slightly.
7. Reverse the power supply connections and repeat steps two to six.
8. Plot a graph of current against potential difference for each .
9. Repeat the experiment but replace the with a bulb.

### Results

For a 10 Ohm fixed resistor the results may look like this:

Potential difference (V)Current (A)
0.50.05
1.00.10
1.50.15
2.00.20
......

### Evaluation

For a fixed resistor, the potential difference is directly proportional to the current. Doubling the amount of energy into the resistor results in a current twice as fast running through the resistor. This relationship is called and is true because the of the resistor is fixed and does not change. A resistor is an .

### Results

For a bulb, the results may look like this:

Potential difference (V)Current (A)
0.50.10
1.00.20
1.50.35
2.00.50
2.50.65
3.00.78
3.50.90
4.01.00
4.51.08
5.01.15
5.51.20
6.01.25
6.51.31
7.01.36
7.51.38
8.01.41
8.51.44
9.01.46
9.51.48
10.01.50

### Evaluation

In a filament bulb, the current does not increase as fast as the potential difference. Doubling the amount of energy does not cause a current twice as fast.

The more energy that is put into the bulb, the harder it is for the current to flow - the resistance of the bulb increases. As the potential difference increases, so does the temperature of the thin wire inside the bulb, the filament. The higher temperature increases the of the in the filament, which makes it harder for the to get past.

### Method

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram having chosen a suitable protective resistor (between 100 Ω and 500 Ω).
2. Set the variable resistor to give the lowest potential difference and record the readings on the voltmeter and milliammeter.
3. Alter the variable resistor to increase the potential difference by 0.2 V.
4. Record the new readings on the voltmeter and milliammeter.
5. Repeat steps three to four, each time increasing the current slightly.
6. Reverse the power supply connections and repeat steps two to six.
7. Plot a graph of current against potential difference for the diode.

### Results

Potential difference (V)Current (mA)
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.41
1.63
1.88
2.020

### Evaluation

A diode only allows current to flow in one direction. If the potential difference is arranged to try and push the current the wrong way (also called reverse-bias) no current will flow as the diode’s resistance remains very large. Current will only flow if the diode is forward-biased. When forward-biased, the diode’s resistance is very large at low potential differences but at higher potential differences, the resistance quickly drops and current begins to flow.

## Hazards and control measures

HazardsConsequenceControl measures
Heating of the resistance wireBurns to the skinDo not touch the resistance wire whilst the circuits are connected and allow it time to cool