Almost all animals and plants are made up of cells.
Animal cells have a basic structure. Below the basic structure is shown in the same animal cell, on the left viewed with the light microscope, and on the right with the transmission electron microscope.
|Cytoplasm||A jelly-like material that contains dissolved nutrients and salts and structures called organelles. It is where many of the chemical reactions happen.|
|Nucleus||Contains genetic material, including DNA, which controls the cell’s activities.|
|Cell membrane||Its structure is permeable to some substances but not to others. It therefore controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell.|
|Mitochondria||Organelles that contain the enzymes for respiration, and where most energy is released in respiration.|
|Ribosomes||Tiny structures where protein synthesis occurs.|
Most cells are specialised and are adapted for their function. Animals and plants therefore consist of many different types of cell working together.