Trophic levels

A simple food chain is:

algae → mosquito larvae → dragon fly larvae → perch

All other food chains in an ecosystem can be added together to make a food web. These stages in a food chain or web are called trophic levels. The arrows show the transfer of biomass from one trophic level to another.

At the bottom of all food chains is a producer. This is almost always a plant or alga which can photosynthesise to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. This provides all the biomass for the food chain. Algae are the producers in the food chain above.

The second trophic level in all food chains is an herbivore or omnivore called a primary consumer. Mosquito larvae are the primary consumers in the above food chain. The third stage is a carnivore or omnivore which eats the primary consumer. This is called the secondary consumer and is dragonfly larvae in the above food chain. There may be additional consumers here which would be called tertiary and quaternary. The final level is perch, which is a carnivore and is often called the top or apex predator. Organisms at the tops of food chains have no predators.

Decomposers are bacteria and fungi which breakdown dead plant and animal matter. They secrete enzymes on the surface of the dead organisms to break down and then absorb the digested, smaller food molecules.

Common terms used with food chains:

WordMeaning
ProducersGreen plants - they make glucose during photosynthesis.
Primary consumersUsually eat plant material - they are herbivores. For example rabbits, caterpillars, cows and sheep.
Secondary consumersEat animal material - they are omnivores or carnivores. For example cats, dogs and lions.
PredatorsKill for food. They are either secondary or tertiary consumers.
PreyThe animals that predators feed on.
DecomposersFeed on dead and decaying organisms, and on the undigested parts of plant and animal matter in faeces.