Producing faulty goods incurs repair costs and damages the reputation of the firm. There are two main approaches to achieving quality:
Quality control - where finished products are checked by inspectors to see if they meet the set standard.
Quality assurance - where quality is built into the production process. For example, all staff check all items at all stages of the production process for faults. In this way everyone takes responsibility for delivering quality. Successful quality assurance results in zero defect production.
Introducing quality assurance requires Total Quality Management (TQM), in which managers try to bring about a change in business culture, convincing employees to care about how products are being made and to do their part to ensure standards are met.