Solubility of solids

If a substance is soluble it will dissolve in a given amount of liquid (called the ‘solvent’).

Different substances have different solubilities. This table shows the solubility of substances in water at 20°C. Solubility is shown as the grams of a solute per 100 g of water.

SoluteSolubility
Sodium chloride36
Copper(II) sulfate32
Sodium hydrogencarbonate10
Lead(II) iodide0.07
Lead(II) nitrate54

The effect of temperature

In general, solids become more soluble as the temperature increases. This is why sugar dissolves better in hot water than in cold water. The table shows three examples of the solubility (g of solute per 100 g water) of substances at different temperatures.

20°C30°C40°C
Sodium chloride35.936.136.4
Copper(II) sulfate32.037.844.6
Potassium nitrate47.061.677.0