A graph can be translated horizontally, vertically or in both directions.

represents a translation parallel to the -axis of the graph of . If is positive, the graph translates upwards. If is negative, the graph translates downwards.

represents a translation of the graph of by the vector .

This is also true for other graphs.

For example, is a translation of by the vector and is a translation of by the vector .

represents a translation parallel to the -axis of the graph of .

If is positive then the graph will translate to the left. If the value of is negative, then the graph will translate to the right.

represents a translation of the graph of by the vector

This is also true for other graphs. For example, is a translation of by the vector and is a translation of by the vector .