Ushobora guhindurira gahunda ubwonko bwawe?

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Image caption Ubwonko bwacu buhinduka bute? buhuriye he n'umuhate ku mibereho yacu cyangwa igeno ry'ubuzima bwacu

Ubwonko ni ntayegayezwa cyangwa bwahindurwa?

Ese turi imashini z'imigozi zikora mu buryo tudashobora guhindura, zifite ubuzima n'ubwonko twavukanye byagenwe uko buzagenda?

Cyangwa dushobora kwihindura tukiha undi murongo dukoresheje intekerezo zacu tukagenzura igeno ryacu?

Hannah Critchlow umuhanga muri siyansi y'imitsi y'ubwonko aravuga icyo ubushakashatsi bushya ku mikorere y'ubwonko busobanuye ku bushake bwa muntu, kamere no kwiremamo undi, ndetse n'igeno.

Nk'umuntu mukuru, ubwonko bwawe si nteyegayezwa

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Image caption Abahanga mu mitekerereze n'imikorere y'ubwonko bavuga bugenda buhinduka buri gihe mu buzima bwacu

Mu ntangiriro z'ubuhanga bw'imitsi y'ubwonko, byemerwaga ko utwo dutsi twabwo twaremanywe nabwo mbere yo kuvuka k'umuntu kandi bidashoboka kuvura ubwonko bwangiritse.

Mu myaka myinshi, abahanga muri ibi bemeraga ko imiterere y'ubwonko bw'umuntu mukuru idashobora guhinduka. Mu yandi magambo uko turi kwari uko nta guhinduka cyangwa guhindurwa.

Ariko guhera mu myaka ya 1960 kubona ibintu gutya byatangiye guhinduka.

Ubushakashatsi bwarakozwe bugenda bugaragara ibinyuranye n'ibi; hari ibimenyetso byagiye byerekana ko ubwonko bushobora kuba bwahindurwa - bushobora kwakira ibishya, gukura yewe no kwiyuburura.

Icyo abatwara tagisi i Londres babonye ku bwonko bwacu

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Image caption Abatwara tagisi z'umukara i Londres ubwonko bwabo butwigisha iki

Hugo Spiers ukora ubushakashatsi ku kwibuka akaba n'umuhanga mu by'udutsi two mu bwonko wo muri University College London (UCL) ati: "iyo wicaye inyuma muri tagisi y'umukara ukabwira umushoferi aho ugiye, umushoferi ategetswe guhita atekereza inzira ya bugufi ihakugeza vuba."

Kugira ngo abishobore umushoferi agomba kuba yibuka neza neza imihanda yose ya Londres. Ni ukuvuga imihanda 60,000 y'uwo mujyi iri ku murambararo wa 10Km n'ahantu hazwi hagera ku 100,000.

Hugo avuga ko umushoferi wa tagisi umwe yamubwiye ati: "Iyo utekereje mu nzu yawe, usanga uzi neza aho igitanda kiri, igikoni, ibitabo..buri kintu cyose uba uzi aho kiri. Niko bimeze no mu mujyi wa Londres."

Kumenya buri hantu hose n'imihanda yose, nibyo abatwara za tagisi i Londres bita "ubumenyi" - bavuga ko kubigeraho bisaba hagati y'imyaka ibiri n'ine.

Abahanga mu bumenyi bw'udutsi two mu bwonko bize ku bwonko bw'abatwara za tagisi i Londres, hari icyo babonye; mu gihe gufata mu mutwe aha hantu hanini byariho biba kuri bo, ubwonko bwabo batangiye guhinduka.

Bwakoresheje ubuhanga bw'amashusho bwitegereza ubwonko, aba bahanga babonye ko agace k'ubwonko bw'aba bashoferi kitwa hippocampus kagiye kaba kanini.

Ibi hari icyo bisobanuye - biganisha ku gusobanura ko ubwonko dufite mu gihe runaka atari bwo tuzahamana iteka, ko hari igihe, impamvu n'ubushobozi bwo guhinduka.

Byatumye hari n'ibindi bibazo byibazwa; dushobora guhindura ubwonko bwacu nk'uko tubigenza ku zindi ngingo z'umubiri kugira ngo tugere ku cyo dushaka?

Kuvura intekerezo zawe

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Image caption Ubu buhanga bwakora iki ku bwonko bwacu

Andi mageragezwa yakozwe mu myaka ya 1960, 70 na 80 yagaragaje ko ubwonko bufite ubushobozi bwo guhinduka mu ngano n'imikorere -

Kimwe mu bikomeye cyane muri uku guhinduka ni 'neurogenesis'; gukura k'udutsi dushya tuva mu turemangingo tw'ubwonko tugakura.

Sharon Begley umwanditsi w'igitabo "The Plastic Brain" avuga ko ibi bitanga ikizere kinini ku bushobozi bwacu bwo gukira.

Ibi ngo niyo mpamvu ubuvuzi bwitwa Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) - ubwoko bw'ubuvuzi bwifashishije ibiganiro - bushobora kugufasha gukemura ibibazo byawe buhindura uburyo watekerezaga cyangwa witwaraga.

Sharon ati: "Iyo twigishijwe gutekereza ibitubaho mu buzima mu buryo butandukanye, muri uwo mwanya w'ibiganiro mu ntekerezo, ibi bishobora guhindura ingano n'imikorere y'ubwonko".

Gusa ibyo Sharon yita "kwiyongera k'ubwonko" bishobora no kukugaruka bikomeye.

"Haba iki mu gihe umuntu adashobora gutekereza inzira yo kwivana mu gahinda gakomeye n'ihungabana? Tuzarenganya abo byananiye kugira ibitekerezo bikwiye?" - Sharon aribaza.

Akongeraho ati: "Kwibaza ko ikintu cyose cyagenze nabi mu bwonko gishobora gukosoka, byaba ari ukujya kure cyane".

Ubwonko n'ibitsina

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Image caption Gabo cyangwa Gore?

Ibigize umubiri wacu bishobora kudushyira mu byiciro no gutandukanya cyane ubushobozi bw'abantu.

Urugero, dushobora kwitirira imyifatire myinshi igitsina (gender) runaka - hari abantu rwose badashidikanya ko igitsinda cyawe gisobanura imyifatire n'ibikorwa byawe.

Gina Rippon, umuhanga mu by'udutsi tw'ubwonko n'ubwanditsi w'igitabo The Gendered Brain ati: "Abagore ntibafata ingingo, abagabo bahisha amarangamutima? Tekereza nanone".

Gina akemanga igitekerezo ko ubwonko bw'abagore n'ubw'abagabo bitandukanye kandi ko iryo tandukaniro ari ntayegayezwa, ndahinduka - we yabonye ko nta kintu kiri mu bumenyamuntu gihamya ko hari itandukaniro rishingiye ku gitsina mu bwonko.

Ahubwo, Gina avuga ko kuva cyera abantu bajyanywe mu gushyiraho no kwemera ko hari ubwonko bw'abagabo n'ubwonko bw'abagore kubera ibintu bitandukanye bagiye bababonaho mu buzima bwabo, bakababwira ko ubushobozi bwabo n'imyitwarire yabo iterwa n'igitsina cyabo.

Gina ati: "Ubwonko ni ikintu gikora kandi gihinduka ku isi kurusha uko twabibonye, bityo isi hamwe n'icyo isi ari cyo, bizagenda bihinduka kurusha uko twigeze tubitekereza".

Gina yemera ko ubwonko bufite ubushobozi bwo kumenyera bitewe n'aho buri n'ibihe burimo budashingiye ku gitsina (gender) gusa cya nyirabwo nk'uko imitekerereze ya cyera ibihamya.

Impinduka n'uruhererekane ku babyeyi

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Image caption Isi y'ubwonko bw'umwana itangira nta kiyirimo

Iyo habaye ah'imyanzuro igendanye n'ababyeyi hari ubwo bisa n'aho ari byo gutekereza ko, ku kigero runaka, ubuzima buba bwaragenwe kandi budahinduka.

Kamere, igereranyijwe n'umuhate wo kwiremamo undi, iha akazi gakomeye ababyeyi n'inshingano yabo yo gufata imyanzuro ku babo, bigatuma guhangayika kwabo bidashira iyo babona uriya muhate wundi w'ababo.

Niba kamere (dushobora kuvana ku babyeyi ari ingenzi), ababyeyi bakwiye kugira impungenge z'uko barera abana babo?

Gukura no guhinduka k'ubwonko nabyo bishobora guha ikizere ababyeyi, Gina avuga ko niba udacurangiye umuziki umwana wawe akivuka bidasobanuye ko atazawiga nyuma ari mukuru akawumenya.

Gukura no guhinduka k'ubwonko ni aho isi y'ubwonko bw'ubwana iba ari nta kiyirimo, nta kamere y'ababyeyi be cyangwa igeno runaka.

Ubwonko bwawe mu by'ukuri bwakura cyangwa bugahinduka gute?

Ubwonko bwacu buri munsi burahinduka.

Buri gihe wize ikintu gishya, cyangwa igitekerezo gishya, uba ukoze cyangwa ukomeje imikorere mishya runaka mu mitekerereze yawe, uba ukoze indi miterere mishya mu bwonko bwawe.

Bwahinduka bingana bite rero?

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Image caption Ubwonko burasaza ku buryo nta kindi bwamenya?

Kevin Mitchell umuhanga muri iyi siyansi wo muri Trinity College Dublin muri Ireland avuga ko impinduka zikomeye cyane ziba ku kigero gito cyane kitabonekera amaso mu bwonko. Ati: "aho niho ukwibuka kwacu gukorerwa."

Mu gitabo cye yise 'Innate', Kevin avuga ko bishoboka ko dukwiye kwibutswa ko "gukura no guhinduka k'ubwonko bwacu bidafite iherezo", kandi guhinduka kwacu buri gihe kudahindura abo turi bo.

Avuga ko abantu badakwiye kwizera neza igitekerezo ko "dushobora guhindura ikintu cyose dushaka guhindura, ko dushobora kujugunya ikigero runaka k'ibyo dukomora ku babyeyi bacu tukigira undi muntu wese dushaka kuba we".

Agita ati: "Buri gihe tuba dukoresha ubwonko bwacu. Igihe cyose tuba dukoresha uburyo bwo kumva no kureba by'ubwonko bwacu. Ariko ntabwo buri kanya nabyo bigenda biba binini. Iyaba buri gikorwa cyose dukoresheje ubwonko kibugira bunini umutwe wacu wazagera aho ushanyuka".

Ubushakashatsi nk'ubwa Kevin bwerekana ko ingingo y'uko ubwonko bwacu bukuru kandi buhinduka cyane yakiwbazwaho kuko abantu bose badafite ubwonko nk'ubw'abatwara tagisi i London cyangwa bavukanye uturemangingo twa hippocampus nk'utwabo.

None se ni kamere cyangwa ni umuhate ugena igeno ryacu?

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Image caption Ni iki gituma ibimera bikura? ni uko byabanguriwe cyangwa ni uko byitabwaho?

Birumvikana ko, ibigize umubiri wacu, ibikikije imibereho yacu, mbese ibyo twavukanye n'uburyo ubwonko bwacu bikura ari nkaho ari ndasigana mu buzima bwacu.

Kevin ati: "Tugomba kurenga guhanganisha kamere n'umuhate ku igeno ryacu kuko byombi bifatanye mu buryo budatanywa".

Avuga ko umuntu aza akoze atunganyijwe mu buryo bugenwe, hakaza n'uburyo ubwonko bwe bukura, ibi byombi akaba ari byo bigena abo tuba bo.

Amahita menshi cyane adashobora kubarwa umuntu akora niyo agena umwihariko w'ubuzima bwe, mu buryo bumwe, ayo ashobora kuba yanditse mu miterere y'umubiri we n'inkomoko ye.

Icyakora kuba umuntu avuka akoze atunganyijwe ntibisobanura buri gihe amahitamo azakora kuko ashobora no kugenwa n'imibereho asanze.

Kevin ati: "Imyifatire tugira itewe n'ibyo twaciyemo ni ibintu bigenzura ibikorwa byacu buri mwanya wose w'ubuzima bwacu".

Hari ukwakuranwa guhoraho hagati y'imiterere tuvana k'uko twavutse n'abo dukomokaho n'ingaruka zabyo ku bwonko bwacu hamwe n'ingaruka z'ibyo tubamo.

Byombi bigenda bikomeza kutugira abo turi bo mu gihe cy'ubuzima bwacu bwose.

Ntabwo ari ubushake n'umuhate byawe cyangwa igeno ry'ubuzima ahubwo ni byombi bigena igeno ryacu.

Ibindi bisa n’ibi