Rwanda: Umuntu yiyahura bigeze he? Yabonwa ate mbere? Yafashwa ate?

Kwiyahura Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Social Media
Image caption Kuwa gatanu ushize umukobwa yasimbutse mu igorofa ya kane i Kigali apfa kuwa gatandatu, aha yariho afashwa n'abaganga akimara kwiyahura

Mu Rwanda, inkuru yo kwiyahura kwa Scholastique Hatangimana yaravuzwe cyane kuwa gatanu ituma benshi bongera kwibaza ku kwiyambura ubuzima.

Tariki 10 z'ukwa cyenda buri mwaka isi izirikana umunsi wo kurwanya kwiyahura.

Imibare y'ishami ry'umuryango w'abibumbye ryita ku buzima (OMS) ivuga ko abantu miliyoni imwe biyahura ku isi buri mwaka, bivuze ko buri masegonda 40 hari umuntu wiyahura.

Dr Darius Gishoma umuganga w'inzobere mu buvuzi bw'indwara zijyanye n'imitekerereze (Clinical Psychology) avuga ko umuntu yiyahura ageze ku kiciro cya kane(4) nyuma y'ibindi bitatu abantu baba batabonye, cyangwa babonye ntibiteho.

OMS ivuga ko mu 2016 mu Burundi abantu 30 ku bantu 100,000 aribo biyahuye. Ivuga ko muri uwo mwaka mu Rwanda abantu 22 ku bantu 100,000 naho biyahuye.

Igitabo cy'ibarurishamibare cy'u Rwanda cya 2018 kivuga ko abiyahuye mu 2013 ari 24, mu 2014 hiyahura 10, mu 2015 hiyahura 24, mu 2016 hiyahura 22, naho mu 2017 hiyahuye 10.

Aba ni abiyahura bikamenyekana ko biyahuye bakabarurwa, gusa ibibanziriza kwiyahura byinshi biba mu ibanga ku ushaka kubikorwa cyangwa uri kubigerageza.

Umuntu yiyahura bigeze he?

Dr Gishoma, umuganga akaba n'umwalimu muri kaminuza y'u Rwanda mu gashami kajyanye n'ubuzima bwo mu mutwe, agereranya umuntu wiyahuye n'umuntu uri 'guporomoka'.

Uyu ngo agenda afata utwatsi tugacika maze abantu bakazamubona yafashe akatsi ka nyuma kakamucika akagenda. Kwiyahura ngo bica mu byiciro bine.

Dr Gishoma ati: "Icya mbere ni igitekerezo, yumva ko kubera ibibazo afite aramutse atariho ububabare bwagabanuka. Igice cya kabiri ni ugushaka uburyo; hejuru y'igorofa, kwishyira mu mugozi, kwiroha mu mazi, kunywa umuti wica n'ibindi…

Uyu muganga avuga ko ikiciro cya gatatu ari ukugerageza, umuntu wiyahura ngo ashobora kubanza kubigerageza kenshi ntapfe ariko rimwe akazabikora bigakunda.

Ati: "Akenshi kwiyahura ni ibintu biba bimaze igihe kinini umuntu ari kumwe nabyo, yarababaye agashaka ibisubizo. Abantu rero dukunda kubibona igihe cyarenze".

None ko twese tugira ibibazo?

Dr Gishoma avuga ko abantu benshi cyangwa bose bahura n'ibibazo koko mu buzima, gusa ngo usanga bamwe baba bafite ibisubizo bitatu, bibiri se cyangwa kimwe.

Ati: "Hari undi ugera aho nta na kimwe gishoboka, uyu iyo muganiriye akubwira ko yageze ahantu nta gisubizo na kimwe ari kubona kandi arimo kumva akababaro karenze ako abasha kwihanganira.

"Uyu rero ashobora kwiyahura atari uko ashaka gupfa ahubwo ari ukugira ngo ako kababaro kagabanuke, nibwo agera ku kiciro cya kane".

Scholastique Hatangimana wasimbutse mu igorofa ya kane rwagati mu mujyi wa Kigali kuwa gatanu bivugwa ko iruhande rw'umubiri we bahasanze inyandiko ikubiyemo ibibazo byamuteye kwiyahura.

Bamwe mu bamuzi bagiye batanga ubuhamya ko bari bazi ko hari ibibazo yagize mu mateka ye ariko batari bazi ko ari ku rwego rwo kwiyahura.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Umuntu nubwo yaba afite abo babana n'inshuti agera ku gihe cyo kwiyahura yumva ari wenyine

Dr Gishoma avuga ko ibyo abantu babona umuntu yiyahuye ari ibiba bimaze igihe kinini.

OMS muri rusange ivuga ko ku isi abantu 10 ku bantu 100,000 ari bo biyahura. Dr Gishoma avuga ko ibi bisobanuye ko abantu benshi babasha gukemura ibibazo bahura nabyo batiyahuye.

Ati: "Abiyahura nabo ariko si ibigwari nk'uko njya numva bamwe babivuga ahubwo ni ikintu cyasanishwa n'uburwayi nk'agahinda gakabije (Depression).

Ushaka kwiyahura yabonwa ate? yafashwa ate?

Abantu benshi biyahura ngo babanza kugera aho bumva ari bonyine nubwo yaba akikijwe n'abantu 5,000 cyangwa se abana n'abantu, ariko we ngo aba yumva nta muntu bari kumwe.

Dr Gishoma avuga ko ari ngombwa cyane ko amatsinda y'abantu, imiryango n'inshuti baganira cyane ku mbamutima zabo (emotions) kugira ngo umuntu amenye uko undi amerewe.

Ati: "Iyo umuntu ababaye ukamuba hafi nyuma y'icyumweru ashobora gutangira kureba ku buryo bwagutse, akabona ibindi bisubizo mu gihe yabonaga nta na kimwe".

Avuga ko inshuti, imiryango n'amatsinda y'abantu bagomba kwitondera no kudafata nk'ibisanzwe kumva umuntu avuga ko ashobora kwiyahura.

Uyu ngo aba ari ku kiciro cya mbere, icya kabiri cyangwa icya gatatu mbere yo kugera ku cya nyuma.

Kwa muganga ngo hari imiti batanga igabanya buhoro 'Depression', muganga kandi ngo ashobora guha umurwayi gahunda zo kuganira nawe akagenda amufasha kubona ibisubizo cyangwa gusubira mu buzima no mu bantu.

Muganga kandi ngo agerageza gushaka umuntu wamubera urufatiro kuburyo atuma yongera kugira ibyiringiro mu buzima bwe.

Bigirana isano n'amateka mabi?

Ubushakashatsi bwa kaminuza y'u Rwanda bwitwa 'Rwanda Mental Health Survey Report' bwasohotse mu kwezi kwa kabiri uyu mwaka buvuga ko hagati ya 25% na 37% by'ababajijwe bafite ibibazo byo mu mutwe.

Ikigero cy'indwara y'agahinda gakabije mu gihugu kiri kuri 11,9% y'ababajijwe nk'uko iyi raporo ibivuga.

U Rwanda kimwe n'u Burundi ni ibihugu byaciye mu ntambara n'ubwicanyi bwatwaye abantu benshi, by'umwihariko Jenoside mu Rwanda.

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Image caption Ikiciro cya kane cyo kwiyahura nicyo abantu benshi babona ariko biba byabanjirijwe n'ibindi byiciro bitatu

Dr Darius Gishoma avuga ko ikintu cyose cyica umuntu, umuryango, kibuza ubuzima kubaho cyongera ibyago byo kwiyahura.

Avuga ko hari ubushakashatsi bugenda bukorwa, bwerekana ko koko hari isano hagati y'ibyabanje n'ibyabaye ku muntu no kwiyahura.

Ati: "Usanga nka Jenoside yarabanje itwara umuryango we, nyuma yaho agerageza kubaka ubuzima ariko haza ibindi byago bisenya n'utwo yubatse.

Bigatuma igihe kimwe avuga ati 'kuki imyaka yose ngenda mbabara gusa?', akaba ashobora kubifata nk'igisubizo [kwiyahura]".

Dr Gishoma ariko avuga ko amateka akomeye nubwo ashobora gutera kwiyahura ariko atari ko bigenda buri gihe.

Ati: "Kuko dufite abantu benshi cyane baciye mu bikomeye kandi babasha kubisohokamo".

Wari uzi ko?

Kwiyahura cyangwa kugerageza atari icyaha gihanwa n'amategeko mu Rwanda?

Ingingo ya 116 y'amategeko ahana mu Rwanda ivuga ko "umuntu wese ushishikariza undi kwiyahura, umufasha cyangwa utuma yiyahura" iyo abihamijwe afungwa hagati y'imyaka itatu n'itanu.

Amategeko ya Uganda, Botswana, Malawi, Ghana, Tanzania na Kenya ntabwo ahana kwiyahura ariko ahana kugerageza kwiyahura.

Ibindi bisa n’ibi