Eritrea – Aho batazi ATM, naho Sim Card ikaba ari nka zahabu

Imyitozo ya gisirikare ni itegeko muri iki gihugu Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Imyitozo ya gisirikare ni itegeko muri iki gihugu

Eritrea ifatwa nka kimwe mu bihugu bikandamiza kurusha ibindi muri Afurika, aho abantu badahabwa ubwisanzure bw'ibanze ku mibereho, politiki n'ukwemera.

Ntabwo bitangaje kuko ari igihugu kiyobowe n'ishyaka rimwe rya Perezida Isaias Afwerki kuva cyabona ubwigenge mu 1993.

Guverinoma yaciye amashyaka atavuga rumwe n'ubutegetsi hamwe n'itangazamakuru ryigenga, bamwe mu banenga ubutegetsi barafunzwe abandi baburirwa irengero hashize imyaka.

Buri muturage ukiri urubyiruko ategekwa gukora amahugurwa ya gisirikare.

Ibi byatumye ibihumbi amagana by'abaturage bahunga igihugu, bamwe bemera gushyira ubuzima bwabo mu kaga baca mu butayu bwa Sahara n'inyanja ya mediterane bashaka kujya i Burayi.

Abo bitashobokeye, hari benshi bahasize ubuzima, hari abafungiwe muri Libya, hari abari kuzanwa mu Rwanda.

Umunyamakuru wa BBC Jibat Tamirat aheruka gusura iki gihugu, nubwo yari acunzwe cyane na ba maneko ba leta.

Avuyeyo, yanditse ibyo yabonye muri iki gihugu kigenzura mu buryo bukabije ubuzima bw'abaturage.

1) Sim cards ni nka zahabu

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Abantu benshi bakoresha za 'Publiphone' bishyura

Kompanyi ya leta yitwa EriTel niyo yonyine itanga serivisi z'itumanaho. Serivisi zayo ni mbi kandi zigenzurwa bya hafi cyane na leta.

Raporo y'umuryango witwa International Telecommunication Union ivuga ko internet muri Eritrea igera ku bantu bari hejuru gato ya 1%.

Gutunga Sim card ni nko kuba ufite zahabu. Abaturage bagomba kwiyandikisha ku butegetsi bw'ibanze kugira ngo bayitunge.

No mu gihe uyibonye, ntabwo igufasha kubona Internet kuko nta 'data' zayo zitangwa kuri telephone ngendanwa.

Abantu babona internet gusa ya WiFi nayo igenda buhoro cyane. Kugira ngo ujye ku mbuga nkoranyambaga nka Facebook cyangwa Twitter abantu bakoresha virtual private network(VPN) kugira ngo bahunge igenzura rya leta.

Kubera uburyo bigoye cyane kubona Sim Card, abantu benshi bagomba gukoresha telephone rusange (public phone) bakishyura kugira ngo bahamagare.

Nizo umunyamakuru n'abo bari kumwe bakoreshaga mu gihe cy'iminsi ine ya mbere bariyo. Ati: "nyuma nibwo twahawe sim card imwe nk'ikipe y'abantu batatu ba BBC, nayo tugomba gusubiza tuhavuye".

2) Abantu bafata amafaranga imbere y'umukozi wa Banki gusa

Image caption Kubona cash ntabwo byoroshye

Guverinoma yashyizeho amategeko y'umubare w'amafaranga umuntu adashobora kurenza afata kuyo yabikije muri banki.

Nubwo waba ufite kuri konti yawe za miliyoni z'ama nakfa - ifaranga rya Eritrea - ntushobora kubikuza arenze 5,000 ($330) ku kwezi.

Umuturage waganiriye na BBC mu murwa mukuru Asmara yavuze ko kugira ngo ugure Toyota Corolla yakozwe mu 1986 bigusaba kubikuza 5,000 nakfaa mu mezi 11.

Bityo ngo nibwo ushobora guha uyigurisha 55,000 cash ukanamuha andi 55,000 ukoresheje 'bank transfer'.

Uyu avuga ko ubundi guverinoma ivuga ko iryo gurishwa rigomba gukorwa habayeho 'bank transfer' ariko abacuruzi baba bashaka 'cash' kuko kuyabona bigoye.

Abemererwa gufata amafaranga menshi kuri banki ni abantu bagiye gukora ubukwe kuko ari umuhango ukomeye usaba amafaranga menshi.

Iyo ubukwe bwegereje nyirabwo ajya ku buyobozi bw'ibanze bukandikira banki ye ko koko afite ubukwe birtyo ashobora gukura kuri konti ye arenze 5,000 nakfa.

Abatuye iki gihugu bahaye BBC ibitekerezo bitandukanye ku mpamvu leta ibuza abantu gufata amafaranga.

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Image caption Ugiye gukora ubukwe yemererwa gufata arenze 5,000 kuyo yabitse muri banki ariko yitwaje urwandiko rwa leta

Bamwe bavuga ko "bigamije gutoza abantu umuco wo kuzigama no kurwanya ihungabana ry'ibiciro ku masoko"

Nta mashini za ATM ziba muri Eritrea.

Uyu waguze imodoka yabwiye BBC ko mu mwaka ushize ubwo umupaka wa Eritrea na Ethiopia wafungurwaga nyuma y'imyaka myinshi yagiye mu mujyi wa Mekelle mu majyaruguru ya Ethiopia maze agatangara bikomeye abonye abantu bafata amafaranga menshi ava mu cyuma.

3) Hari Televiziyo imwe rukumbi

Televiziyo ya leta, Eri-TV niyo yonyine ikorera mu gihugu. Ni ubuvugizi bwa leta, gusa iyo ufite ibyuma byakira satellite ushobora kureba BBC n'izindi sheni mpuzamahanga zirimo na ERISAT y'abanyapolitiki bahunze.

Ishyirahamwe ryitwa Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) rivuga ko Eritrea aricyo gihugu "kiniga itangazamakuru kurusha ibindi ku isi" ndetse kiri inyuma ya Korea ya ruguru.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Bareba televiziyo imwe ya leta, lta ikavuga ko bashoora kureba n'iz'amahanga

CPJ isubiramo ibivugwa na Deutsche-Welle Akademie y'Ubudage ko "ibica ku mirongo ya satellite nka radio z'abahunze iki gihugu zitumvikana kenshi kubera internet mbi itangwa na leta".

Gusa, minisitiri w'itumanaho Yemane Meskel ahakana ko Eritrea ari sosiyete "ifunze".

Avuga ko hejuru ya 91% by'ingo zo mu mijyi zifite ibyuma bifata satellite bityo babasha kureba sheni 650 za televiziyo zo mu mahanga. Ndetse yashyize ifoto kuri twitter ashimangira ibyo avuga.

4) ... n'urwengero rumwe

Rwashinzwe mu 1939 n'umutaliyani Luigi Melottia, nirwo rwonyine ruri mu gihugu cyose.

Abaturage ba hano babwiye BBC ko vuba aha ari bwo baheruka kwemererwa kurenza amacupa abiri y'inzoga igihe bagiye mu kabari.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Utubari (bars) twinshi dufite amazina y'igitariyani

Ibi byatumaga abafata agasembuye bitwaza abatakanywa kugira ngo babashe gufata izibagera ku nyota.

Uru rwengero ruzwi cyane ku izina rya Melottia kubera uriya warushinze.

5) Abakiri bato benshi bifuza kuva hano

"Kubona 'passport' ni nk'inzozi", umusore ukiri muto wasangiye n'abanyamakuru ba BBC niko avuga.

Abakiri urubyiruko bo bahabwa 'passport' gusa iyo bakoze amahugurwa ya gisirikare, urwandiko rwemeza ko wayakoze urishyira mu bisabwa iyo usaba 'passport'.

Kubona uru rwandiko rw'abajya mu mahanga ntibibemerera kugenda kuko bisaba na Visa yo gusohoka. Iyi biragoye kuyibona kuko leta iba itinya ko ugiye atagaruka.

Bityo urubyiruko rwinshi rw'abanya-Eritrea bava mu gihugu cyabo bihishahisha baca amayira atagendwa ku mipaka ya Ethiopia na Sudan.

Nyuma yo kuva mu gihugu bigoye, bahangara ubutayu bwa Sahara n'inyanja ya Méditerranée bizeye kugera i Burayi.

Ababigerageza ni benshi ugereranyije n'abagerayo, bamwe bicwa n'inzara ku rugendo, abandi bakazira inyota mu butayu, abandi barohama mu nyanja.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Rwanda Emergency Management
Image caption Benshi mu baheruka kuzanwa mu Rwanda bavuye muri Libya ni abo muri Eritrea

Umuryango w'abibumbye uvuga ko Eritrea ari igihugu cya cyenda mu bihugu bivamo abimukira benshi ku isi, habazwe 507,000 mu 2018, mu mwaka wabanje bari 486,200.

Impunzi nyinshi ziri muri Ethiopia (174,000) na Sudan (114,500), hari abandi babashije kugera mu bihugu by'i Burayi; mu Budage hari 55,500, mu Busuwisi hari 34,100 nk'uko bivugwa na ONU.

Urubyiruko rwinshi ruri kuva mu gihugu, abakuze nibo usanga baboneka cyane muri Asmara, bariho banywa icyayi muri za cafes ngo igihe gitambuke.

Umubare w'abaturage ba Eritrea ntabwo uzwi neza kuko guverinoma itigeze ikora ibarura rusange na rimwe kuva babona ubwigenge.

Gusa ikigereranyo cya World Population Review kivuga ko hari abaturage miliyoni 3,5 muri iki gihugu, abagera ku 500,000 bakaba baba muri Asmara.

6) Gusa umurwa mukuru ni mwiza

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Musolini yifuzaga ko Asmara iba 'Roma notya'

Umunyagitugu Benito Musolini w'Ubutaliyani bwakoronije iki gihugu yifuzaga ko Asmara iba "Piccolo Roma" (Roma ntoya) muri Afurika, mu myaka ya 1930 yari afite intego yo kugarura ubwami bw'abaromani.

Asmara irimo imihanda n'inyubako nziza zigaragaza umugambi abataliyani bari bahafite icyo gihe.

Ibi byatumye UNESCO ishyira umujyi wa Asmara ku rutonde rw'imirage y'isi kuko itanga ishusho y'iterambere ry'imijyi mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana (ikinjana) gishize muri Afurika.

Nubwo iki ari igihugu cy'ingorane zikomeye mu bukungu na politiki, umurwa mukuru wacyo ni umujyi mwiza ubereye gusurwa.

Ibindi bisa n’ibi