Umunsi wo kurwanya ubukene ku isi: Ese koko ubukene buri kugabanuka?

Umugore w'umukene muri Nigeria Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Banki y'isi ivuga ko iterambere riheza bamwe

Banki y'isi ivuga ko mu myaka igera kuri 30 ishize abantu bagera kuri miliyari 1,1 bavuye mu bukene.

Nta gushidikanya ko ari imwe mu nkuru nziza cyane ku iterambere ry'isi muri iki kinyejana.

Hagati y'imyaka ya 1990 na 2015 umubare w'abantu baba munsi y'umurongo w'ubukene (batunzwe no munsi ya $1,9 ku munsi, ni agera ku 1,700Frw) wavuye ku bantu miliyari 1,9 ugera kuri miliyoni 735.

Ibi bivuze ko umubare w'abatuye isi bitwa abakene wavuye kuri 36% ukagera ku 10% muri iyo myaka.

Gusa umuhanga mu by'ubukungu washyizeho uyu murongo w'ubukene yabwiye BBC ko gahunda z'iterambere ziriho ubu "zitagera ku bakennye cyane uko bikwiye"

Martin Ravallion wahoze ari umuyobozi w'ubushakashatsi na visi perezida wa banki y'isi avuga ko "ubusumbane buri kwiyongera ari cyo kibazo gikomeye cyane mu kurwanya ubukene".

'Imivuduko ibiri'

Banki y'isi ivuga ko iterambere riheza bamwe, ubukungu buri kugwa n'amakimbirane ariho muri iki gihe ari ibintu biri kuzahaza ibihugu binyuranye.

Mu gihe Ubushinwa n'Ubuhinde bibumbiye hamwe miliyari y'abaturage ubu bitagifatwa nk'ibihugu bikennye, umubare w'abari mu bukene bukabije muri Afurika yo munsi y'ubutayu bwa Sahara ubu iri hejuru kurusha mu myaka 25 ishize.

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Ubukene ku isi

Uduce twatoranyijwe, ibigereranyo bya 2018

  • miliyoni (m) 656batunzwe na $1.90 cyangwa munsi yayo ku munsi

  • Afurika yo munsi ya Sahara m437

  • Amajyepfo ya Aziyam121

  • Uburasirazuba bwa Aziya na Pasifikam34

  • Amerika y'Epfo & Karayibem26m

  • Uburasirazuba bwo hagati & Afurika ya rugurum25

Aho biva: Banki y'isi

Carolina Sánchez-Páramo umuyobozi ushinzwe kurwanya ubukene muri banki y'isi agira ati: "Mu myaka icumi gutyo ishize twabonye isi iri kugenda ku mivuduko ibiri".

Carolina yasobanuriye BBC ko ibyo biterwa n'impamvu enye:

1. Umuvuduko uhindagurika w'iterambere ry'ubukungu

Ati: "Iterambere ryari riciriritse ku bihugu byo munsi ya Sahara no muri Amerika y'epfo ugereranyije no muri Aziya y'amajyepfo n'uburasirazuba muri iyo myaka".

Carolina avuga ko iyo ibihugu bitari kuzamuka mu bukungu bikomera no kugabanya ubukene.

2. Iterambere ridaheza

Nubwo kuzamuka k'ubukungu ari ingenzi ariko si cyo cya ngombwa cyane mu kurwanya ubukene, si yo nzira yonyine, nk'uko umuyobozi wa Banki y'isi abivuga.

Avuga ko mu bihugu byinshi ubukungu bwazamutse ariko butagera kuri bose cyangwa benshi.

Image caption Mu mujyi wa Bujumbura hari abantu babeshejweho no gutora ibyo kurya cyangwa amakara mu iyarara kubera ubukene (ifoto yo mu 2017)

Avuga ko hakenewe cyane ubukungu butera imbere ariko buha abantu benshi imirimo, iki ari cyo cy'ingenzi cyane mu kurwanya ubukene.

3. Kugera ku bikorwa remezo

Ubukungu ntabwo butera imbere gusa iyo abantu bafite amafaranga, ahubwo iyo banabasha kubona uburezi, kwivuza, n'ibindi bikorwa remezo bibafasha mu buzima busanzwe.

Iyo ibyo bidahari, Madamu Carolina avuga ko "bidaha amahirwe abakene kuva mu bukene no kugera kuri iryo terambere abandi babona".

Ati: "Urugero nka Malaysia, nibura buri kimwe muri ibi byazamukaga ku rwego rumwe".

Ku bipimo mpuzamahanga, ubukene muri Malaysia buri ku gipimo cya zeru kuva mu 2013 - nubwo ku bipimo by'igihugu cyabo atari ko bimeze.

4. Amakimbirane

Muri iyi myaka ya vuba, amakimbirane ya politiki n'imirwano byavanyeho intambwe yari imaze guterwa na bimwe mu bihugu.

Madamu Carolina ati: "Ubukene buri kwiganza mu bihugu birimo cyangwa biherukamo amakimbirane".

Igabanuka ry'ubukene muri Afurika

% y'abatunzwe no munsi ya $1.90 no kumanuka

IgihuguKumanuka kuvaKugeraInterval
Tanzania86%49%2000-2011
Chad63%38%2003-2011
Repubulika ya Congo53%37%2005-2011
Burkina Faso82%44%1998-2014
Repubulika ya Demokarasiya Congo94%77%2004-2012
Etiyopiya61%31%1999-2015
Namibiya31%13%2003-2015
Mozambique81%62%2002-2014
Rwanda77%57%2000-2013
Uganda67%42%1999-2016
Guhera mu 1995-2005 / Kugeza mu 2010-2019
Aho biva: Banki y'isi

Mu 2015, kimwe cya kabiri cy'abantu bakennye ku isi babarirwaga mu bihugu bitanu - Ubuhinde, Nigeria, DR Congo, Ethiopia na Bangladesh.

Ibiteganyijwe ubu ni uko Nigeria yaciye cyangwa iri hafi guca ku Buhinde nk'igihugu gifite umubare munini w'abantu baba mu bukene, byombi bifite abantu hafi miliyoni 100 bakennye.

Kugeza mu 2030, nubwo ibihugu byinshi bya Afurika biri kuzamura ubukungu no kurwanya ubukene, abantu 9 ku 10 batunzwe no munsi y'amafaranga 1,700 ku munsi bazaba ari abo muri Afurika.

Kugera ku bakennye cyane

Guca ubukene bitarenze 2030 biri mu ntego z'iterambere rirambye (SDGs) z'umuryango w'abibumbye, ariko raporo yawo yo mu kwezi kwa karindwi ivuga ko 6% by'abatuye isi bazaba bakiba munsi y'umurongo w'ubukene icyo gihe.

Martin Ravallion avuga ko gahunda zo guteza imbere ubukungu ziriho "ziri gufasha abantu bakennye ariko zitari gufasha abakennye cyane" kuko zitabageraho.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu BBC GAHUZA
Image caption Ubucuruzi bwambukiranya imipaka hagati y'u Rwanda na Congo: Abashakashatsi bavuga ko ibiciro ku masoko byazamutse ku kigero cya 30% hagati ya 2010 na 2014, bivuze ko ubukene bwazamutse, butamanutse

Asobanura ko mu myaka 200 ishize isi yagiye itera imbere mu bukungu kuko abakennye cyane bagendaga bagerwaho na gahunda zo kubavana mu bukene buhoro buhoro ariko mu buryo bukwiye.

Ati: "Ariko urebye ni ikinyuranyo cy'ibiri kuba uyu munsi muri iyi si twita ko iteye imbere".

Ikibazo cy'ubusumbane

Bwana Ravallion avuga ko $1,9 (1,700Frw) ari igipimo kitondewe cyane kigamije gukurikirana impinduka mu bakennye cyane.

Gusa uko ibihugu bikennye bigenda bikira bijya mu cyiciro cy'ibihugu by'amikoro agereranyije, ubusumbane nabwo buriyongera bigatuma bigorana cyane ku bakennye kurusha abandi kuva hasi.

Bwana Ravallion ati: "Turi kubona imibare y'abari munsi y'umurongo w'ubukene [1,700Frw ku munsi] igabanuka ariko tukabona imibare y'abakene yiyongera urebeye ku bipimo n'ubuzima mu bihugu byabo".

Ibi ngo biraterwa n'ubusumbane bukabije bubangamiye iterambere ry'ubukungu budaheza ari nabwo bugabanya ubukene mu buryo bufatika.

Ibindi bisa n’ibi