Yalta: Inama yo mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi yose yahinduye isura y’isi

Abiswe Ibihangange Bitatu - uva i bubamfu uja i buryo: Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt na Joseph Staline

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Abiswe Ibihangange Bitatu - uva i bubamfu uja i buryo: Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt na Joseph Staline

Hari mu kwezi nk'uku kwa kabiri umwaka wa 1945, mu gihe Ubudagi bwari bugeze aho umwansi ashaka, abagabo batatu barahuye maze bafata ingingo y'ingene isi igiye kumera inyuma y'intambara ya kabiri y'isi yose.

Aba Nazi bo mu Budagi bariko baratsindwa ku rubuga rw'intambara. Abasirikare b'abarusiya bari basugereje umugwa mukuru Berlin, mu gihe ingabo z'uburengerazuba zari zimaze kwinjira ku butaka bw'Ubudagi ziciye mu burengero.

Mw'ibahari Pasifike, ingabo za Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zari zisugereje Ubuyapani, n'aho nyinshi muri zo zahasiga ubuzima bikomeye.

Mu gihe ingabo z'ibihugu vyop mu burengero bw'isi zari zimirije gutsinda intambara, ako karwi kiswe Ibihangange Bitatu - ni ukuvuga umukuru w'igihugu ca Amerika Franklin Roosevelt, umushikiranganji wa mbere w'Ubwongereza, Winston Churchill, hamwe n'umukuru w'igihugu c'Uburusiya Joseph Stalin - bahuriye mu karere ka Yalta, akarere k'Uburusiya kari ku nkengera zikiyaga Cirabura (Mer Noire).

Inyuma y'intambara yahitanye ubuzima bw'abantu benshi isi itari bwigere ibona, haciye imyaka 75, abo bategetsi bashaka ko akaga nk'ako katosubira kuba.

Ariko, ibihugu vya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z'Abasovieti vyashaka kurondera ingene bikorana hagati yavyo kugira ngo vyiganzire isi.

Hagati aho, amasezerano bashitseko muri iyo nama ya Yalta ntiyabujije ko inyuma y'amezi make gusa ivyo bihugu bishasha bibiri vy'ibihangange kw'isi vyisanga mu ntambara y'ukwikekana (Guerre Froide/Cold War).

Vyatumye isi nayo yigaburamwo impande zibiri nyene imyaka itari mike, rumwe rwegamiye kuri Amerika, urundi rwegamiye ku Burusiya (ico gihe bwitwa URSS/USSR).

Umwigisha wa kaminuza ya Boston muri Amerika, Andrew Bacevich, yabwiye BBC ati: "Nimba intumbero ya Yalta kwari kwubaka umushinge w'amahoro nyayo kw'isi yose inyuma y'intambara, iyo nama yabaye impfagusa".

"Bivuye ku migambi itandukanye ya Amerika n'Uburusiya, iyo ntumbero ntiyigeze iganirwako".

Ibintu vyari bimeze gute mu kwa kabiri 1945?

Mu ntango ya 1945, ubutegetsi bw'aba Nazi bo mu Budagi bwari burongowe na Adolphe Hitler bwariko buratsindwa muri iyo ntambara.

N'aho aba Nazi babandanya bihagararako bikomeye cane bakemera gupfira igihugu cabo, intsinzi y'abansi babo ntiyari agaseseshwarumuri.

Mu buseruko bw'Ubulayi, Leta Zunze Ubumwe z'abasovieti zari zabahindukiriye zirakubita bikomeye ingabo z'abadagi inyuma y'intambara ikarishe y'imyaka ine yose.

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Inyuma y'imyaka itatu irenga, Uburusiya bwarakubise bikomeye ingabo z'Abadagi, bukaba bwari busugereje umugwa mukuru Berlin

Hagati aho, n'aho igisirikare c'Uburusiya cariko kiratsinda intambara - hafi ¾ vy'abasirikare bobse b'Abadagi bapfiriye mu ntambara yo ku ruhande rw'ubuseruko - ico gihugu cari cononekaye biteye ubwoba.

Amakuru avuga ko umurusiya umwe ku ndwi, ni ukuvuga hafi imiliyoni 27 z'abarusiya, bapfiriye muri iyo ntambara - 2/3 bakaba bari abasivire. Hari abahinga bamwe bavuga ko ico gitigiri kirenga kure n'iyo.

Ibisagara hamwe n'isi ndimwa yimbuka cane kandi yari itunze igihugu vyari vyononekaye kubera intambara. Amahinguriro, imirima, inyubakwa eka n'amabarabara, vyose vyari vyatabagaye.

None abo bategetsi bari bafise intumbero nyabaki?

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Joseph Staline yari yiteguriye gusubira kwubaka igihugu ciwe. Yagiye i Yalta afise intumbero yo kurondera abokorana nawe mu karere k'ubuseruko bwa Bulaya kugira ngo akingire Uburusiya.

Yarondera kandi gucamwo ibice Ubudagi ku buryo butazosubira kuba isoko ry'intambara, yongere kandi aronswe indishi y'akababaro - amahera, ibikoresho hamwe mbere n'abakozi - kugira bimufashe kwubaka igihugu ciwe cari casambutse.

Staline yari azi ko adashobora gushika kuri iyo migambi adashigikiwe n'ibihugu vya rutura vyo mu burengero.

Winston Churchill yaratahura ivyipfuzo vya Staline. Bompi bari barahuriye i Moscou mu kwa cumi 1944, barumvikana ko bogabangana Ubulaya hagati y'Uburusiya n'ibihugu vyo mu burengero.

Yari azi neza kandi ko amamiliyoni y'ingabo z'Uburusiya zari zirukanye Abadagi mu burere bwo hagati n'ubuseruko bw'Ubulaya zasumba kure n'iyo ingabo z'ibihugu vyo mu Burengero - kandi ko ata kintu na kimwe bwoshobora gukora mu gihe Staline yofata ingingo yo kuzigumiza muri ubwo burere.

Ubwongereza bwari bwatangaje intambara mu kw'icenda 1939 inyuma y'aho Ubudagi butereye igihugu kigenzi ca Pologne, Churchill akaba yari yiteguye gukora ivyo ashoboye vyose kugira ngo ico gihugu kisubirane ubwigenge bwaco.

Hagati aho, Ubwongereza bwakoresheje uburyo bwinshi cane kugira bushike ku ntsinzi ku buryo bwari bugeze aho umwansi ashaka.

Churchill yari yiteze ko Amerika izomufasha guhangana na Staline.

Hagati aho, Perezida Roosevelt wa Amerika wewe yari afise izindi ntumbero ashira imbere. Yashaka ko Staline yemera ko bashinga ishirahamwe ONU - ishirahamwe rishasha rijejwe kubungabunga amahoro kw'isi inyuma y'intambara.

Umwigisha wa kaminuza ya Virginia, Melvyn Leffler yabwiye BBC ko Roosevelt yari acibuka neza ko ukutumvikana hagati y'ibihugu vyari vyarwanirije hamwe Abadagi inyuma y'intambara ya mbere y'isi yose rwatumye Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ziyonkora muri politike mpuzamakungu mu myaka ya 1920 na 1930.

Ati: "Ico Roosevelt yashaka imbere ya vyose, yashaka ko igihugu ciwe kitosubira kwikumira".

Yashaka kandi ko Uburusiya butangaza intambara ku Buyapani.

N'aho ibintu vyari vyabaye nabi cane ku Buyapani, ingabo zabwo zariko zirakorera ishano abasirikare ba Amerika, aho bari mu ntambara yo kwirukana izo ngabo z'Abayapani mw'ibahari Pacifike.

Amerika yari ifise ubwoba bwinshi ko mu gihe yotera Ubuyapani yotakaza abasirikare benshi cane.

Yalta habaye iki?

Roosevelt yari yipfuje kubonanira ahantu muri Méditerranée na Staline, ariko uyu nawe yasavye ko bobonanira i Yalta kubera yatinya indege.

Harabaye ibiganiro mu mirwi kuva ku wa 04 gushika ku wa 11 z'ukwa kabiri ahari hashikiye intumwa za Amerika, ku kirimba ca Livadia, cahoze ari ikibanza c'akaruhuko c'umwami wa nyuma w'u Burusiya, Nicholas II.

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Iyo nama yabereye ku kirimba ca Livadia

Abo bategetsi batatu baheruka kubonanira i Teheran muri Irani mu 1943. Roosevelt yarashaka kwizigira cane Staline gusumba uko yokwizigira Churchill yabona uyu mutegetsi w'Uburusiya nk'umutegetsi yagenda atinyika gusumba.

Inyuma y'indwi baganira, abo bategetsi batatu batangarije isi yose ingingo bafashe.

Ubudagi bumaze gushira amaboko hejuru ataco busavye, bwategerezwa guca busamburwa.

Bumvikanye ko bayicamwo ibice bine, kimwe kimwe muri ivyo bitatu kigatwara icige kimwe, ikindi kigahabwa Ubufaransa. Uko niko kandi n'umugwa mukuru Berlin wategerezwa kugaburwa.

Iryo tangazo kandi ryavuga ko Ubudagi bwategerezwa kuriha ivyononekaye vyose muri iyo ntambara, kandi ko hategerezwa gushingwa umurwi i Moscou wo kwiga ivyo butegerezwa kuriha.

Abo bategetsi kandi bumvikanye ko mu bihugu vyose bashoboye kubohora hategurwa amatora - harimwo na Pologne yategerezwa kugira iyindi leta "yategerezwa kubamwo abanyapolonye batowe hagati mu gihugu n'abari hanze".

Uburusiya bwari bwamaze gushiraho leta mfatakibanza ya gikomunista i Varsovie, bukaba bwari bwemeye ko izosubirwamwo.

Hagati aho, icitwa intwaro rusangi kuri Staline cari gifise iyindi nsiguro itandukanye.

N'aho yemeye ko hari kuba amatora yari kuba mu bwisanzure mu bihugu vya Bulaya vyabohowe, ingabo ziwe zariko zirafata ibigo bikuru bikuru mu bihugu vya Bulaya yo hagati n'iyo Ubuseruko zibishira mu minwe y'imigambwe ya gikomunista.

Vyongeye, abo bategetsi - ku gahato ka Staline - bafashe ingingo yo kwagura imbibe za Polonye amaja mu burengero, maze Uburusiya bwiyagurira akarere.

Muri ayo masezerano nyene, ibihugu vya Balte navyo nyene vyategerezwa kwinjira mu bihugu bigize Leta Zunze Ubumwe z'Abasovieti.

Umuhinga mu vya kahise, Anne Applebaum, yanditse mu nyandiko yiwe yise "Rideau de Fer/Iron Curtain" ko abo bategetsi bafashe ingingo yo kugabangana Ubulayi uko bishakiye".

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Insiguro y'isanamu,

Gushika mu 1989, umugwa mukuru Berlin wari ugabuyemwo ibice bine

Roosevelt yari yitwararitse gusumba umugambi wiwe w'ugushinga Ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu ONU, kandi ico yipfuza yaragishitseko.

Ivyo bihugu vyose bitatu vyemeranije ko bizorungika intumwa i San Fransisco ku wa 25 z'ukwa kane 1945, gufasha gushinga iryo shirahamwe mpuzamakungu.

Igisumbirije, Stalin yasavye ko botegura igitero ku Buyapani inyuma y'amezi atatu Ubudagi butsinzwe.

Chruchill yagumye afise amakenga ku kungene ibintu vyari bimeze mu buseruko bw'Ubulayi inyuma y'iyo nama, n'aho bari bagiriraniye amasezerano.

Yasavye ingabo ziwe n'iza Amerika kubandanya batera baja mu buseruko uko bashobora kwose imbere y'uko intambara irangira.

Inyuma y'aho vyagenze gute?

Mu mezi makeya, politike yarahindutse mu buryo butangaje.

Roosevelt yahavuye apfa mu kwa kane ahitanywe n'indwara yo kuvirirana mu bwonko, aca asubirirwa na Harry Truman.

Mu kwa gatanu, Ubudagi buramanika amaboko ataco burinze gusaba. Hanyuma ku wa 16 z'ukw'indwi, Amerika iragerageza ikirwanisho cayo gishasha yakoze mu mpisho - ikibombe c'ubumara.

Ku munsi wakurikiye, Perezida Truman yabonanye na Winston Churchill na Joseph Stalin mu nama yabereye ahitwa Potsdam hanze y'umugwa mukuru w'Ubudagi, Berlin.

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Insiguro y'isanamu,

Clement Attlee (i bubamfu), Harry Truman (hagati) na Joseph Stalin (i buryo) bahiruye i Potsdam intambara irangiye i Bulaya

Truman ntiyari azi Staline, kandi yari amaze amezi ane gusa ashitse ku butegetsi. Winston Churchill yari ku butegetsi kuva mu kwa gatanu 1940, yasubiriwe na Clement Atlee mu gihe yari akiri mu nama nyene, inyuma y'amatora yo mu 1945.

Muri iyo nama icuka cari gitandukaney n'ica mbere.

Abategetsi ba Amerika bumva ko bafise inguvu nyinshi inyuma y'aho baboneye ubukomezi bw'ikibombe cabo c'ubumara bari bahejeje kugerageza.

Truman yarinuba cane Staline gusumba uko Roosevelt yamwinuba. We n'abahanuzi biwe babona ko Uburusiya ata shaka bwari bufise ryo gukurikiza ivyari mu masezerano ya Yalta.

Mu kiringo kidashika imyaka ibiri, umukuru w'igihugu ca Amerika yatangaje integuro ya Truman (Truman Doctrine), yashaka ko Amerika ikoresha inguvu kugira ngo ibuze Uburusiya kubandanya bukwiragira kw'isi. Intambara y'ukwikekana (Guerre Froide) iba iratanguye.

Churchill na Roosevelt, bompi baraneguwe kubona barorohereje Staline mu mubonano wabo i Yalta. Hagati aho, nta kintu kinini Amerika n'Ubwongereza bari gukora kugira bamuhagarike. Staline yari afise ingabo mu karere kose k'Ubulaya bwo hagati n'Ubuseruko.

Inyuma y'inama ya Yalta, Churchill yasavye ko hotegurwa igitero ku Burusiya, igitero cari ciswe "Operation Unthinkable" - ariko abasirikare b'Ubwongereza bari bajejwe kugitegura bagiye kubona ko izo zari indoto zo kumurango.

Umwigisha Leffler avuga ati: "Ivyo Yalta yakoze ku bijanye n'akarere k'Ubuseruko bw'Ubulayi kwabaye gusa ukwemeza ubutegetsi bwari buhari ico gihe".Inama yo mu ntambara ya kabiri y'isi yose yahinduye isura y'isi