Kubera iki Afurika itumiza inkoko nyinshi ziva hanze?

Inkoko mu modoka i Lagos muri Nijeriya Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP

Mu gihe gukunda kurya inkoko cyane byiyongera muri Afurika, umunyamakuru wa BBC Africa, Kim Chakanetsa aracukumbura impamvu ituma uyu mugabene utorora inyoni nyinshi zawutunga.

Niba waba uheruka kurya amaguru y'inkoko ariho ibirungo muri Angola cyangwa se indi nkoko itekwa muri Senegali iriho indimu yitwa "yassa poulet", birashoboka ko yaba yaravuye kure mbere yo kugera kuri iyo sahani wayiririyeho.

Biterwa n'aho utuye muri Afurika, ariko inkoko ziri gutemberezwa cyane, mu byuma bikonjesha cyane ziva muri Brezil, mu Budage cyangwa ibindi bihugu mu Muryango w'Ubumwe bw'Uburayi zijyanwa muri Afurika.

Imibare itangazwa n'urwego rwita ku buhinzi muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, yerekana ko inkoko zoherezwa munsi y'ubutayu bwa Sahara zikubye inshuro eshatu hagati ya 2004 na 2014.

Dore impamvu ziri inyuma y'iri zamuka n'icyakorwa kugira ngo umugabane wongere umusaruro w'ubworozi bw'inkoko, mu ngingo enye:

1) Kubera iki inkoko aho kuba inka?

Afurika ifite ubwiyongere bw'abaturage bwitezwe kwikuba kabiri bakagera kuri miliyari ebyiri na miliyoni 500 mu 2050, kandi ibyo bizana n'ubushake bwo kurya inyama z'ubwoko bwihariye by'umwihariko.

Kevin Lovell, umuyobozi w'ishyirahamwe ry'ubwoozi bw'inkoko muri Afurika y'Epfo yagize ati: "Inkoko ni yo nyama itoraywa bwa mbere ku banya Afurika benshi."

Avuga ko ikiguzi cyo hejuru cy'inyama z'inka n'imiziro ishingiye ku madini abuza inyama y'ingurube bisobanura impamvu byinshi mu bice bya Afurika bihitamo inkoko.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Inkoko yokeje irakunzwe cyane muri Nijeriya

Mu gihe abantu benshi bagenda bimukira mu mijyi, uburyo barya butangira guhinduka kandi basa n'abahitamo inyama zicuruzwa hafi mu mabutike cyangwa amangazini akomeye yungukira mu bucuruzi bukorwa ku mugabane.

Ikigo gicuruza ibiryo bitetswe ku buryo bwihuse cyane Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) ubu gifite ibyicaro birenga 700 muri Afurika bikorera mu bihugu 13.

Calestous Juma, umwarimu mu rwego rw'iterambere mpuzamahanga muri Kaminuza ya Havard asobanura ko: "Umusaruro w'inyama ntuhwanye n'umubare w'abazikeneye...biterwa n'ubwiyongere bw'abaturage ariko kandi n'uburyo bw'iterambere ry'umujyi."

Kandi koko ubwiyongere buratangaje. Imibare y'igereranya yakozwe na Banki y'Isi yerekana ko, muri 2030, 50% by'Abanya Afurika, barenga miliyoni 500, byitezwe ko bazaba batuye mu mijyi, bavuye kuri 36% mu 2010.

2) Inkoko zishonje

Abanya Afurika benshi bazi inkoko zishobora kuboneka mu mbuga zidegembya uko zishaka zitora.

Izi nkoko zizwi ko zigaburira kandi ko zikomeye ariko ziryoha cyane.

Nk'uburyo bwo gutunga umuryango, cyangwa kugira udufaranga ku muryango winjiza amafaranga macye, izi nkoko zikora ako kazi.

Cyakora, iyo bije ku buryo bwo korora kijyambere, ibiribwa by'inkoko bihoraho bigizwe n'ibigori ndetse na soya ni ngombwa.

Image caption Umworozi w'inkoko muri Ghana, Napoleon Oduro, avuga ko igiciro cy'ibiribwa by'inkoko ari imwe mu mbogamizi.

Ariko uburyo buri hasi mu rwego rw'ubuhinzi muri Afurika busobanuye ko kenshi ibi biryo by'inkoko bigomba gutumizwa hanze ku giciro kinini, bigahagarika umuhate w'aborozi mu gutubura umusaruro wabo.

Napoleon Oduro, ni umworozi w'inkoko muri Ghana ufite inkoko 500 hafi y'umurwa mukuru Accra.

Yambwiye ko ibiryo biturutse hanze bimutwara ikiguzi cy'amadolari 25 (Frw 21.250/ hafi amarundi 43.000) ku mufuka w'ibiro 50.

kandi rero kubera ko buri nkoko irya ibiro hafi 2.5 ku kwezi, avuga ko ikiguzi gishobora gutera imbogamizi.

3) Guturaga "inkoko y'igitangaza"

Si ikiguzi cy'ibiryo by'inkoko kiri hejuru gusa, ahubwo no kuba nyinshi mu nkoko za Afurika zikeneye byinshi cyane ugereranyije na ngenzi zazo zo mu masoko ateye imbere.

Aborozi bo muri Afurika ntibabona uburyo bwo guturagisha inkoko zigaburirwa zikororwa kubera umusaruro w'inyama gusa.

"Bwana Lovell agira ati: " Ibigo byinshi bikorera muri Afurika bigerageza gukoresha uburyo bwo kubona icyororo giturutse mu bihugu bikoreramo ariko ibyo bitanga igice cy'igisubizo kubera ko izo nkoko ntizishobora kubyazwa umusaruro nk'inkoko zo mu bihugu by'Uburayi biteye imbere."

Prof Juma asobanura ibi nk'ibura ry'ubushakashatsi bwimbitse, bitera kubura gahunda nyazo zo kongera umusaruro ku mugabane.

Avuga Kenya, aho 80% by'umusaruro w'inkoko uturuka ku bwoko bw'inkoko za gakondo, byerekana urugero rwiza rw'uko ikibazo giteye.

Cyakora, hari inkuru nziza muri uru rwego.

Umushinga wiswe African Checken Genetic Gains uri muri gahunda yo kohereza "inkoko nyinshi zibyara umusaruro mu borozi bo muri Afurika".

Ikigo mpuzamahanga cy'ubushakashatsi cyitwa International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), giterwa inkunga n'ikigo cy' abaherwe Bill na Gate Foundation, giteganya gutubura umusaruro w'inkoko zo muri Afurika.

Iki gitekerezo, kiri kugeragezwa bwa mbere muri Etiyopiya, Nijeriya na Tanzaniya ni kimwe mu byo ny'iri porogaramu ya Microsoft yise "big bet", ugenekereje mu kinyarwanda bisobanuye, "intego nini" ku nkoko, inarimo isezerano ryo gutanga inkunga y'inkoko ibihumbi 100 ku miryango iba mu bihugu bikennye cyane ku isi.

4) Ihurizo ku nkoko ziva hanze

Imwe mu mbogamizi ku bahinzi borozi muri Afurika ni urusobe rw'inkoko ziva muri Brezil, mu Burayi no muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Abakora mu bworozi bw'inkoko muri Afurika bavuga ko ibi biterwa n'amahitamo y'inyama z'umweru mu bihugu byo mu Burayi.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika byashyizeho amabwiriza aca inkoko ziva hanze ariko ibiciro biracyari hejuru.

Bwana Lovell agira ati: "Mu Burayi, by'umwihariko abantu benshi bashaka kurya igituza cy'inkoko kandi bishyura menshi ku gituza mu iduka kurusha ayo bakwishyura ku zindi nyama [ amababa, itako cyangwa amaguru] kandi iryo tandukaniro rituma ikigo kibona inyungu kikanacuruza izindi nyama ku giciro gito kiri hasi y'icyo bitwara mu kuzorora."

Bostwana, ifite amabwiriza akomeye amaze igihe abuza nizanwa ry'inkoko zivuye hanze, ubu yorora inkoko zihagije zishobora gutunga abaturage bayo.

Ariko na none ifite inkoko zihenze cyane mu karere, ubushakashatsi buheruka gukorwa, abanenga iyo gahunda basaba guverinoma guhagarika izo ngamba kugira ngo habe ipiganwa ibiciro bimanuke.

Bwana Oduro anafite icyo kibazo gishingiye ku giciro: " Abakiriya bavuaga ko ibyo tworora hano muri Ghana bihenze ugereranyije n'inkoko ziva hanze."

Ariko uyu mworozi wo muri Ghana anenga guverinoma kubera kutagira icyo ikora, avuga ko yananiwe gushora imari no gufasha abahinzi mu gihe cy'imyaka myinshi.

"Ntitwanga inkozo zivuye hanze, turasaba gahunda yatuma umworozi wo muri Ghana apiganwa."