Ni kubera iki Libiya yinuba imigambi y'Uburaya ku bimukira?

Umwimukira asoma igitabo mu bwato bw'ishirahamwe Proactiva Open Arms itariki 1, ukwezi kw'i 7, 2018 Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Umwimukira asoma igitabo mu bwato bw'ishirahamwe Proactiva Open Arms itariki 1, ukwezi kw'i 7, 2018

Uburaya buriko burakora ukwo bushoboye ngo butorere umuti ikibazo c'abimukira mu gihe imihora yo kujabukana abantu yo kuri Mouammar Kadhafi ikibandanya ikora.

Ivyiyumviro vyashikirijwe n'abategetsi b'ibihugu vya Buraya mu ntumbero yo guhagarika abimukira bo muri Afrika baca ku nkengera y'ivyo bihugu vyariyamirijwe n'igihugu ca Libiya naho hari amasezerano yari yapfunditswe n'ubutegetsi bwa Kadhafi.

Asaba ishirahamwe rya Otan kutagaba ibitero vy'indege vyo kumukura ku butegetsi, uwahora atwara Libiya Mouammar Kadhafi yagize ati: "Ndasavye k'ubu mwontega amatwi, mwa bantu bo muri Otan. Muriko murekura ibibombe ku ruhome ruzibira abanyafrika kwinjira i Buraya, rukeza kure n'imigwi y'iterabwoba ya al-Qaeda. Ico ni igihugu ca Libiya, none muragisambuye."

Kadhafi yariko aragerageza kwikora ku bwoba Uburaya bwari bufise kubera ikibazo c'abimukira, ngo arabe ko yoguma ku butegetsi, ariko ntivyashoboka. Yishwe n'inyeshamba zishigikiwe na Otan mu kwezi kwa cumi 2011 bitewe n'imigumuko y'abanyagihugu biyamiriza ubutegetsi bwiwe bwari bumaze imyaka 42, bituma igihugu c'Ubutaliyano gitakaza igihugu bakorana mu kugerageza kugabanya ikibazo c'abimukira baturuka muri Afrika.

"Nta muntu yari acitaho igihugu ca Libiya inyuma yaho Kadhafi akuriwe ku butegetsi," nkuko bivugwa na Tarek Megersi, umusesenguzi w'umunya Libiya aba mu gihugu c'Ubwongereza.

"Hari ikibazo c'ibura ry'inzego, imigwi itwara abantu hanze igaca iboneraho cane," niko Bwana Megersi abandanya avuga.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Abanyafrika benshi bashira ubuzima bwabo mu kaga bajabuka ikiyaga Méditerranée

Kubiri n'igihugu ca Turukiya cemeye gufasha muri ico kibazo c'abimukira mu kwakira abanya Siriya bari mu mazinga y'abagiriki kibanje kwemeregwa amahera menshi, leta ya Libiye izwi mu makungu ko igoyagoya yaranse ivyo Uburaya bwashikirije bijanye no gushinga "ibibanza vyo kwakiriramwo" abimukira bipfuza kuja i Buraya igihe ibihugu vyo kuri uwo mugabane vyoba biriko biriga amadosiye yabo.

'Turanse twivuye inyuma izo kambi z'abimukira," niko icegera c'umushikiranganji wa mbere wa Libiya Ahmed Maiteeq yavuze, mu biganiro n'umushikiranganji w'intwaro yo hagati mu Butaliyani, Matteo Salvin ari mu rugendo i Tripoli mu ndwi iheze.

''Amategeko ya Libiya ntavyemera," niko yabandanije avuga.

Bwana Megersi avuga ko abimukira batumye ibitigiri vy'abanyagihugu bihinduka mu duce tumwe tumwe twa Libiya.

Igisagara ca Zawiya kiri ku nkengera z'ikiyaga cari gifise abantu 200000, ubu gifise abimukira barenga umuliyoni.k

"Leta ya Libiya ifise ubwoba nk'ubwo ibihugu vya Buraya bifise," niko yabandanije avuga.

Avugira mu nama y'umuryango w'Ubumwe bwa Afrika muri Mauritania ku munsi wa mbere, umushikiranganji w'imigenderanire mu gihugu ca Maroc, Nasser Bourita nawe nyene yariyamirije ivyasabwe n'ibihugu vya Buraya, avuga "ko ari inyishu yoroshe ataco ifasha," naho hari ibihugu bisa n'ivyavyemeye nka Niger.

Kadhafi yarateye igikumu ku masezerano y'"ubugenzi" n'umushikiranganji wa mbere w'Ubutaliyano ico gihe Silvio Berlusconi mu kwezi kw'umunani mu 2008, aho ubutegetsi arongoye bwari bwatanguye gukora imikwabu ikaze ku mbibe harimwo n'iyakoregwa mu mazi, mu gihe Ubutaliyano bwari bwemeye gushumbusha Libiya imiriyaridi $5 ku vyaha bwakoze igihe c'ubukoroni.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Mouammar Kadhafi yafashije Silvio Berlusconi guhagarika abimukira baja mu Butaliyano (ifoto ya kera)

Ayo masezerano yatumye igitigiri c'abimukira baca mu kiyaga ca Méditerranée kigabanuka - kuva ku bantu 40000 mu 2008 ku 3200 mu mezi ya mbere y'umwaka w'i 2009, nkuko icigwa casabwe n'umuryango wa Buraya kivuga.

Muri rusangi abantu 206880 nibo baciye muri Libiya bagiye i Buraya hagati y'imyaka y'i 2003 n'i 2012, ni kuvuga abantu 18000 ku mwaka.

Nka bose - 190425 - bagiye kw'izinga Lampedusa ry'igihugu c'Ubutyaliyano, abandi 16445 bagenda mu gihugu ca Malte.

Bwana Megersi avuga ko hari imigwi y'abantu yahatoreye akoyoko, ija mu bikorwa vyo kujabukana abantu.

"Abantu bo mu moko yo mu bumanuko bwa Libiya bari mu bagiye baraja mu bikorwa vyo kujabukana abantu bitewe n'ukutitabwaho mu vy'ubutunzi n'iterambere.

Ingene abantu bagiye baca muri Méditerranée baja i Buraya

Image caption Igiharuzo cerekana abimukira baciye muri Méditerranée hagati y'i 2012 n'i 2017

Abatwara abantu i Buraya bafise imihora mu buseruko no mu Burengero bwa Afrika, bakazana abimukira mu miduga babajana muri Libiya, benshi bakava mu bihugu vya Eritrea na Nigeria, igihugu ca mbere gifise abantu benshi muri Afrika, benshi badafise akazi.

Utwigoro tumaze igihe two kwugara iyo mihora ica muri Libiya no mu bindi bihugu turamaze gushika ku kintu, nkuko umushakashatsi aturuka mu gihugu ca Malte, Mark Micallef avuga.

"Imwe mu migwi y'inyeshamba zikorera mu gihugu ca Libiya yarahawe amahera y'agashirukabute ngo ifashe guhagarika urudandazwa rw'abantu."

Omar al-Bashir arondegwa na sentare mpuzamakungu mpanavyaha ku vyaha vy'i Darfour nawe nyene yarafashanije n'umuryango wa Buraya kuri ico kibazo.

"Muri ino myaka ibiri, igihugu ca Sudani kirafasha ku rubibe rwaco na Tchad, Libiya na Misiri," niko bwana Micallef avuga.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Abinjiza abantu i Buraya bakora ingendo ndende baca mu bugaragwa bwa Sahara

Igihugu ca Niger naco nyene caragize uruhara muri ico gikorwa.

Umuryango w'ibihugu vya Buraya wahaye ico gihugu imiliyoni 610 z'ama euros mu 2016, yo gufasha gutorera umuti imvo z'ukuri zituma abantu bahurumbira kuja i Buraya.

Inyuma yaho, igitigiri c'abimukira carakorotse mu mezi atandatu ya mbere y'uno mwaka.

Umuryango w'Ubumwe bwa Afrika nawo nyene waremeye gufasha, usaba ko hoshingwa ikigo cokurikirana ikibazo c'abimukira "African Observatory for Migration and Development".

"Afrika ntikwiye kuja irarondera ico ivuga ku ngingo zapfundikiwe hanze. Dukwiye kuba dufise aho duhagaze," niko Bwana Bourita, umushikiranganji w'imigenderanire ya Maroc yabwiye BBC.

Kurangiza ico kibazo, ibihugu vya Afrika ngo bikwiye gushira uburyo bwinshi bw'amahera mu gisata c'urwaruka, ari nazo nguvu z'igihugu, niko Bwana Bourita avuga.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Umushikiranganji wa mbere w'Ubutaliyano Matteo Salvini (i buryo) ariyamiriza abimukira bava muri Afrika

Ikigo Afrobarometer, co muri Afrika yepfo kivuga ko Afrika ikwiye kubanza kwicarira ikibazo c'ubutunzi.

Ugushaka kwimukira i Buraya biri mu rwaruka no mu bize, bamwe barondera akazi, abandi bahunze ubukene, niko ico kigo kivuga.

Bwana Megersi avuga ko Uburaya bwari bukwiye gutunganya amategeko agenga ikibazo c'abimukira.

"Bamwe babikora barondera ubuhungiro. Abandi ku ngorane z'ubutunzi, Hari urwaruka rwipfuza gukora mu bisata vyinshi. Uburaya burakeneye abimukira, mu gihe abanyagihugu babwo bashaje," niko avuga.

Abanyepolitike bo ku mugabane wa Buraya ntibashigikiye abimukira, benshi mu baja mu matora bakavuga ko bari mu ngorane z'ubutunzi kubera abimukira.

Ivyo vyatumye imigambwe y'intagondwa iba myinshi muri kino gihe - nk'uwa Bwana Salvini mu Butaliyano - utwigoro two kugwanya abimukira tugashobora kwiyongera mu minsi iri imbere.

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