Abatunze cane kw'isi bari mu bihe bihugu? Bamariye iki abanyagihugu?

Hong Kong Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Igisagara ca Hong Kong cungutse abantu barenga 20 bafise amahera aharugwa mu mamiliyaridi mu 2017

Ni waba uba mu gisagara ca Hong Kong, uramaze kwumva uwitwa Li Ka-shing, kumbure umaze kumuha n'amahera.

Uwo mugwizatunga w'imyaka 90 ni uwa 23 mu batunze cane kw'isi, akaba afise amahera yoba angana n'amadolari imiliyaridi $37.7.

Amahera ya Ka-shing ava mu bikorwa vyo kwunguruza abantu n'ibintu, ibikorwa bishingiye ku guhererekana amahera hamwe no ku mashirahamwe y'amasoko ntanganguvu.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Li Ka-Shing agira uwa 23 mu bantu batunze cane kw'isi

Uwo mugwizatunga w'amamiliyaridi ni nk'isonga gusa uravye ubutunzi buri muri ico gihugu cigenga, gikomoka ku Bushinwa: ku bw'icegeranyo ca vuba ca "'World Ultra Wealth Report" co ku mwaka casohowe na Wealth X, Hong Kong ni iya kabiri kw'isi inyuma ya New York, ifise abantu benshi bafise amahera aharugwa mu mamiliyaridi y'amadolari.

Muri kino gihe ifise abantu 93 bafise amamiliyaridi, hakaba hiyongeyeko 21 ugereranije no mu 2016.

Muri ico cigwa hatowe ko ibisagara 10 bifise abo bantu b'amamiliyaridi biri mu bihugu biri mu nzira yo kwiteza imbere, gurtyo bigatuma haba imanga nini hagati y'abatunze n'abakene.

Ku bw'ico cigwa, abantu 2754 bafise amahera angana n'amadolari umuliyaridi $1 canke arenga, mu 2017.

Umutungo wabo muri rusangi ungana amadolari imiliyaridi $9,200 - ukaruta ubutunzi bw'Ubudagi n'Ubuyapani bugiye hamwe.

Ibisagara birimwo abafise amahera aharugwa mu mamiliyaridi
Igisagara Igitigiri c'abafise amamiliyaridi mu 2017 Icahindutse kuva mu 2016
1. New York 103 +1
2. Hong Kong 93 +21
3. San Francisco 74 +14
4. Moscow 69 -2
5. London 62 0
6. Beijing 57 +19
7. Singapore 44 +7
8. Dubai 40 +3
9. Mumbai 39 +10
9. Shenzen (China) 39 +16
11. Los Angeles 38 +6
12. Istanbul 36 +8
13. Sao Paulo 33 +4
14. Hangzhou (China) 32 +11
15. Tokyo 30 +8
16. Paris 29 0
17. Riyadh 26 +2
18. Jeddah 23 +1
19. Shanghai 23 +3
20. Mexico City 21 +2

Ukutanganya ubutunzi biba vyiza gute?

Ukwiyongera kw'abafise amamiliyaridi vyatumye abahinga mu vy'imibano bicamwo imice.

Bamwe bavuga ko ivyo vyatumye imanga iri hagati y'abakene n'abatunzi yaguka, ivyo bikaba vyashizwe ahabona n'ishirahamwe Oxfam risaba ko abatunze cane bodugirizwa amakori.

Uwundi mugwi uvuga ko abo batunze amamiliyaridi bagiriye akamaro uturere barimwo, bafasha kuduteza imbere.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Umugwizatunga Mukesh Ambani, uwa mbere atunze mu Buhindi, aba mu nzu yiwe y'amagorofa 27 i Mumbai, aho igice c'abanyagihugu baba mu tururi

Mu 2016, umuhinga mu vy'ubutunzi Caroline Freund akora mw'ibanki y'isi yose "Banque Mondiale" yarabishigikiye mu gitabu yanditse avugamwo abantu batunze n'ibihugu bikenye yise "Rich People, Poor Countries: The Rise of Emerging-Market Tycoons and Their Mega Firms".

"Hari ingeso yo gusiba abantu batunze, abo bantu ntibangana. Ubutunzi bafise bwagezweko ku buryo butandukanye, bigatuma ingene bifata aho baba biva ku mahera bafise iyo aturuka," niko yabwiye BBC.

Freund asigura ko abantu bashitse ku mutungo w'amamiliyaridi bawirondereye, bashinze amashirahamwe leta idafisemwo uruhara, usanga bitaho "ababanyi" babo.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Ukutangana mu vy'ubutunzi birashobora kuba vyiza?

Ikinyamakuru Forbes gikurikirana ivy'ubudandaji muri Amerika kivuga ko abantu bafise amamiliyaridi bari mu bihugu 72 kw'isi.

Mu bihugu vy'Ubushinwa, Ubuhindi na Hong Kong, abafise amamiliyaridi biyongeye ku bice birenga cumi.

Ku mugabane wa Aziya abafise amamiliyaridi bagera ku 784, bakaruta abari muri Amerika yo mu buraruko bageze ku 727, ubwa mbere mu mateka.

Umugabane wa Afrika ufise abantu 44 bafise amamiliyaridi - umutungo wabo bose ukagera ku madolari imiliyaridi $93.

Ibihugu 10 vya mbere vy'abafise amamiliyaridi
Igihugu Igitigiri c'abafise imiliyaridi Icahindutse (%) 2016-17 Umutungo muri rusangi mu mamiliyaridi
United States 680 9.7% 3,167
China 338 35.7% 1,080
Germany 152 17.8% 466
India 104 22.4% 299
Switzerland 99 15.1% 265
Russia 96 -4.0% 351
Hong Kong 93 29.2% 315
United Kingdom 90 -4.3% 251
Saudi Arabia 62 8.8% 169
United Arab Emirates 62 19.2% 168
Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Bamwe mu bahinga bavuga ko abantu birondereye amahera batunze nk'umushinwa Li Ma, yatanguje ikigo Ali Baba, bafasha mu butunzi bw'igihugu

"Izamuka ry'abantu batunze cane mu bihugu bikenye rirashobora kubabaza abantu bakora cane ariko bagahembwa ku rushi. Ariko izamuka ry'abantu batunze batunze n'amashirahamwe atunze mu bihugu bikenye, vyerekana ko ubutunzi bw'igihugu bwifashe neza, bigashobora gufasha kuzamura ubuzima bw'abanyagihugu", niko Freund abandanya avuga.

Ubutunzi buzamura uburyo bw'abanyagihugu

Mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe na Freund bivugwa ko amashirahamwe yashinzwe n'abantu ku giti cabo akoresha abantu benshi, kurusha ibigo bifiswe n'abantu bashikiriye amahera bayarazwe n'abavyeyi babo canke baguze amashirahamwe ya leta.

Ivyo ngo vyaratumye umwimbu w'abakozi uzamuka, nko mu gihugu c'Ubushinwa.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Imishahara y'abakozi bo mu mahinguriro mu Bushinwa yavuye ku madolari $3500 ku mwaka ishika kuri $9500 kuva mu 2008, nkuko leta y'Ubushinwa ivuga

Ubutunzi n'ubutegetsi bikwegana

Mu cigwa cakozwe mu 2015 n'abahinga Sutirtha Bagchi na Jan Svejnar ba kaminuza zo muri Amerika ku bantu batunze amamiliyaridi bo mu bihugu 23 hagati y'i 1987 n'i 2002, basanze abantu baronse amahera ku mvo za politike, usanga bizana "urukwegane" ku butunzi - aho ubutunzi hamwe n'ubutegetsi usanga biri mu bantu bari ku rushi bashobora kwifatira leta kubera inyungu zabo.

Ikindi kibazo ni ikijanye n'abantu batunze amamiliyaridi baronse barazwe, ngo ayo mahera ntashikira abanyagihugu basanzwe, mu gihe ayo mahera ava ku batunzi aja ku bana babo.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Mukesh Ambani yashikiye mu vya se, ariko ivyiwe biriharijenherited an empire from his father, but his story is not that common among billionaires from emerging countries

"Birakenewe ko abantu bavugana ku vy'amakori, n'ingene abantu batunze cane bofatwa. Ku bijanye n'iragi, birakenewe ko abarazwe bigishwa kwigwanako mu kazi. Abana b'abatunze amamiliyaridi ntibakwiye gushikira gusa mu matungo asigwa na ba se. Bakwiye gukora ngo babe nkuko abavyeyi bari bameze," niko Caroline Freund avuga.

"Iyindi ngorane ni kwirinda kugira ngo ukuduga mu butunzi bidatuma umuntu aca agira ububasha bunini mu vya politike. N'ubutunzi bushitsweko neza burashobora gutuma umuntu agira ububasha muri politike. Bisigura ko hakenewe ahubwo inzego zikomeye", niko abandanya avuga.