Ingene abanya Etiyopiya b'amamuko y'abayahudi batahukanywe muri Isirayeli mw'ibanga bacishijwe muri Sudani

Ifoto ya Gad Shimron n'ikibanza co kuruhukiramwo ca Arous inyuma
Image caption Ifoto ya Gad Shimron n'ikibanza co kuruhukiramwo ca Arous inyuma

Arous hari ahantu ho kuruhukira mu bugaragwa bwa Sahara umuntu wese yokwipfuza, ku nkengera z'ikiyaga gitukura. Ico kibanza giteye igomwe, cari ikirindiro c'abasumyi b'urusaku b'igihugu ca Israeli bahaje bafise igikorwa barungitswe kuharangurira mw'ibanga.

Mu gitabo cakorewe ukumenyekanisha ico kibanza handitswe hati: "Arous ku kiyaga gitukura, ahantu h'igitangaza h'umwihariko". Muze muhavuge muti "Ikibanza co kwibira mu kiyaga no kuryohegwa co mu gihugu ca Sudani".

Muri ico gitabo haramenyekanishwa ibintu vyinshi vy'ico kibanza. Baravuga ko inkengera z'ikiyaga zamako akazuba; ko ico kiyaga gifise ifi zidakunze kuboneka kw'isi. Muri ico gitabo bivugwa ko amazi y'ico kiyaga ari mu ya mbere meza kw'isi, ko mw'ijoro naho wakigwa n'inyenyeri ziharugwa mu mamiliyoni, n'ibindi vyinshi bivugwa vyo guhayagiza ico kibanza.

Ico kigwati ca Arous cakunda kubamwo amasanganya y'amato, kikagira n'ibinyabuzima vyinshi mu kiyaga, wasanga ari kibanza abakunda kwibira mu mazi bahurumbira.

Ivyo bitabu vyandikishijwe ku bwinshi, bigatangwa mu mashirahamwe ya Buraya akorera ku gisata c'abakerarugendo, ari nayo abipfuza kuja gutembera muri ico kigwati ca Arous bitura.

Abantu benshi baragiye kuruhukira i Arous.

Bashitseyo barafatwa neza, bagahabwa ivya ngombwa biba bikenewe, bagakora ikarashishi yo mu kiyaga, bakibira mu mazi, bakagaburigwa neza.

Image caption Igitabo co kumenyekanisha Arous

Ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu rijejwe ubukerarugendo muri Sudani naryo nyene ryaranezerezwa n'ico kigwati. Ryari ryakoteshereje ico kibanza umugwi w'abantu b'abanya Buraya biyita abanyamitahe, batumye abakerarugendo ba mbere b'abanyamahanga baja muri ico gihugu.

Ikintu abashitsi canke ubutegetsi batari bazi, nuko iyo karashishi yo kwibira mu mazi ivugwa itabaho.

Cari ikirindiro cashinzwe mu myaka yi 1980, kigenzugwa imyaka irenga ine n'abasumyi b'urusaku bo mu mugwi Mossad, ikigo c'iperereza ca Israeli.

Bakoresha ico k'ibanza nk'icitwazo ariko mu vy'ukuri bari mu gikogwa gihambaye co gutabara ibihumbi vy'abayahudi b'abanya Ethiopia bagorewe mu nkambi z'impunzi zo muri Sudani, bakazimurira muri Israeli.

Sudani cari igihugu c'abarabu kidahana ni rwere na Israeli, ico gikorwa kikaba catunganijwe ata muntu numwe abihinyuye haba muri Sudani canke muri Israeli.

"Ryari ibanga ry'igihugu, nta muntu numwe yagira ico abivugako," niko Gad Shimron, umwe muri abo basumyi b'urusaku bakoze muri ico kigwati avuga. "N'umuryango wanje ntavyo waruzi."

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Gad-Shimron
Image caption Gad afise ubwato hafi y'ikigwati ca Arous

Abo banya Ethiopia b'abayahudi bari mu muryango witwa Beta Israel (Inyubakwa ya Israeli), amamuko yabo akaba arimwo ibintu vyinshi bigoye gutegera.

Hari abibaza ko boba baturuka ku miryango 10 yo ku ngoma ya Israeli, canke ko boba baturuka ku banya Israeli bagiye baherekeje umuhungu w'umwamikazi wa Saba n'umwami Salomoni baja muri Ethiopia mu myaka ya 950 imbere yuko Yezu avuka.

Abandi nabo bibaza ko bahungiye hariya, inyuma yaho ingoro ya mbere y'abayahudi isamburiwe mu 586, imbere yuko Yezu avuka.

Bakurikira ivyemezwa muri Torah, bagakurikiza Bibiliya y'abayahudi, bagasengera mu masinagoga.

Ariko mu kuba batigeze babana n'abandi bayahudi imyaka ibihumbi, bo bibaza ko aribo bayahudi basigaye kw'isi.

Aba "rabbins" bakuru bakuru ba Israeli nibo batanguye kumenyekanisha uwo muryango w'abanya Israeli bitwa Beta Israel, mu myaka yi 1970.

Mu 1977, umwe mu b'uwo muryango, Ferede Aklum, yarajanye n'izindi mpunzi zidafise amamuko y'abayahudi, zajabutse urubibe, zihungira mu gihugu ca Sudani zihunze ingwano hamwe n'inzara.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AAEJ Archives Online
Image caption Ferede Aklum (i bubamfu) hamwe na Baruch Tegegne arongoye abanya Ethiopia b'amamuko y'abayahudi

Yanditse amakete ku bigo vy'abagiraneza, asaba gufashwa, rimwe rigwa mu minwe ya Mossad.

Umushikiranganji wa mbere wa Israeli ico gihe, Menachem Begin - nawe nyene impunzi yo mu ba Nazi b'i Buraya, yaciye asaba ikigo c'iperereza kugarukira uwo muryango w'abanya Israeli bo mu bwoko bw'aba Beta.

Umukozi wa Mossad amaze kumenya aho yahungiye, Ferede yaciye arungikira ubutumwa abo mu muryango wiwe, ababwira ko vyoroshe kuja i Yeruzalemu uvuye muri Sudani, kurusha uvuye muri Ethiopia, mu gihe ico gihugu ciyamiriza abahunga.

Yafashije abandi gushira mu ngiro indoto yari imaze imyaka 2700.

Mu gihe cakurikiye, abanya Israeli 14000 bo mu bwoko bw'aba Beta bakoze urugendo rw'ibirometero 800 bari kumwe n'abandi banya Ethiopia, baja kurondera ubuhungiro muri Sudani.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AAEJ Archives Online
Image caption Abanya Ethiopia b'abayahudi muri Sudani mu 1983

Impunzi z'abayahudi zishika 1500 zarishwe muri urwo rugendo, mu makambi ya Gedaref na Kassala, abandi baranyuruzwa.

Mu gihe ata bayahudi bari mu gihugu ca Sudani kigwiriyemwo aba Islamu, basabwa kutavuga idini ryabo kugira ngo bashobore kwiyobagiranya ntibafatwe n'igipolisi.

Image caption Abanya Ethiopia b'abayahudi mu bwato

Igikorwa co gutabara

Igikorwa co gutabara caciye gitangura buhoro buhoro, abo banya Ethiopia b'abayahudi bagasohogwa Sudani bajanwa i Buraya ku mpapuro za magendo, munyuma bakabona gushika muri Israeli.

Mu nyuma inkengera z'ikiyaga gitukura catumye ivyo bikorwa vyiyongera, bifata iyindi ntumbero.

"Twegereye igisirikare co mu mazi ca Israeli ngo kidufashe," niko umwe mu bari mw'ivyo bikorwa ariko atashatse kumenyekana avuga.

"Bagize bati "nta kibazo", munyuma bamwe mu bantu bo muri Mossad baca baja muri Sudani kuraba aho bodutorera, baca baza kuri kino kigwati kiri mu bugaragwa ku nkengera, mu gahinga ka nyaganande.

Image caption Ikarata yerekana aho Arous iri

"Kuri twebwe yari amahirwe kuronka ico kibanza munyuma tugakora ico gikorwa. Twitwaza ko tugenzura ikigwati gifise ikiyaga abantu baja kwibiramwo, ivyo bikaba vyasigura igituma turi mu gihugu ca Sudani n'igituma tuguma dutembera ku nkengera z'ikiyaga."

Ivyabaye mu nyuma biri mw'isinema iriko irategugwa ya Hollywood yitwa Red Sea Diving Resort, amashusho yafatiwe muri Namibia no muri Afrika Yepfo, ikaba iyaga ku gikorwa twarimwo hamwe n'ico kigwati. Naho ishingiye ku vyabaye vy'ukuri, bimwe mu birimwo sivyo.

Ico kigwati carangiye kwubakwa mu 1972 n'abataliyano, kikaba carimwo inzu 15, igikoni hamwe n'uburiro bwagutse ku nkengera y'ikiyaga.

Nta muyagankuba waruhari, nta mazi, nta barabara, abo bataliyano basanga uwo mugambi batanguje udashoboka, ico kigwati nticigera cugurugwa.

"Ni ikibanza kigoye gukoreramwo, utari kumwe n'aba Mossad," niko umwe muri bo avuga.

Bakoresheje ibitabo vy'inzira vya magendo, umugwi w'abo bakozi ba Mossad biyitse abakozi b'ishirahamwe ry'Ubuswisi rikorera muri Sudani, bumvisha ubutegetsi ivyashara baje gukora, baca bakotesha ico kigwati ku myaka itatu ku madolari $320000.

Ikigwati kitarico

Bamaze umwaka wa mbere basubiramwo ico kigwati, bagirana amasezerano n'abantu babazanira amazi meza hamwe n'ibitoro.

Barashizemwo ibikoresho bikoregwa muri Israeli, birimwo "climatiseurs", imoteri hamwe n'ibikoresho bigezweko vy'ikarashishi yo mu mazi, vyinjijwe mu gihugu ku buryo bwa magendo.

"Ni twe twinjije ubwa mbere ubwato butwagwa n'igitambara muri Sudani", niko Gad yavuga atwenga. "Twarazanye ubwato bwa mbere - Ndazi kugendesha ubwato butwagwa n'umuyaga, naravyigishije abashitsi. Abandi basumyi b'urusaku ba Mossad biyita abigisha mu vyo kwibira mu mazi."

Barahaye akazi abakozi 15, abakora mu vyumba, abakora mu bunywero, umushoferi hamwe n'umukuru w'abateka. Nta muntu numwe mu bakozi yarazi ico dukorera muri ico kigwati, canke ko ababatwara ari abasumyi b'urusaku ba Mossad.

Abakozi ba Mossad b'abakobwa nibo bakora imirimo yo ku mutaga, ivyo bikaba vyagabanya imyikeko.

Inyubakwa y'ibikoresho vyo kwibira yari yashizwe kure, ikaba yarimwo amaradiyo abo basumyi b'urusaku baganiriramwo n'ibiro bikuru vyabo vy'i Tel Aviv.

Naho baba bariko baritaho abashitsi, hageze mw'ijoro bamwe muribo bikinga agahumbezi, bakaja guhura nabo bavuganye ku birometero 10, mu bumanuko bwa Gedaref.

"Twabwira abakozi ko tugiye i Khartoum iminsi mikeyi, canke ko tugiye kuraba abaforoma baturuka muri Suède ahitwa Kassala," niko Gad avuga.

Baca bazana abanya Ethiopia b'abayahudi birukanywe mw'ikambi n'abagabo bari muri komite - abanya Israeli b'aba Beta bari batowe ngo barangure ico gikogwa.

"Abo banya Ethiopia b'abayahudi ntibabwigwa ibigiye gukogwa, kuko ntitwashaka ko hagira ikimenyekana," niko Gad avuga.

"Ntibari bazi ko duturuka muri Israeli. Twababwira ko turi abacangero."

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Gad Shimron
Image caption Gad ari kumwe n'uwundi munya Israeli mw'ikamyo muri Sudani

Kuva aho, impunzi ziharugwa mu mirongo zaca zitwagwa mu makamyo mu rugendo rw'iminsi ibiri rw'ibirometero 800, abazitwaye bakagerageza ngo ivyo barimwo ntibimenyekane ku mabariyeri bakoresheje amayeri menshi, nko gutanga ibiturire, canke bakarengana ku nguvu.

Hageze ko baruhuka, baragerageza guhumuriza abo batwaye batekewe n'ubwoba.

"Tubaretse bakicara mu kibanza c'umushoferi bagakora kuri "volant", bumva umengo bageze mw'ijuru," niko Gad avuga mu gitabo ciwe Mossad Exodus.

"Vyaratwenza nko kubona abana 20 banezerewe bariko barasangira jojo imwe. Baraturaba ukamengo ntituri abo kw'isi."

Bamaze gushikanwa ku nkengera z'ikiyaga mu buraruko bw'ikigwati, igisirikare co mu mazi ca Israeli caca kiza kiri mu mato, kigatora izo mpunzi kikazitwara mu rundi rugendo rw'isaha n'igice aho baca binjizwa mu bwato bunini bwitwa INS Bat Galim.

Ubwo bwato nibwo bwabatwara gushika muri Israeli.

Image caption Abanya Ethiopia b'abayahudi batwawe mu bwato bajanwa mu bwato bunini bubatwara muri Israeli

"Igihe cose vyaba biteye ubwoba," niko umwe mu babikora avuga.

"Twese twari tuzi ko hageze uwufatwa, ko twari kwicwa tumanitswe i Khartoum."

Vyarahatswe gushika mu kwezi kwa Gatatu mu 1982, igihe bariko bakora ico gikogwa ku ncuro ya gatatu bahuye n'abasirikare ba Sudani.

Bitewe no kubikeka ko bari mu rudandazwa rwa magendo, abo basirikare bararashe ariko ayo mato hamwe n'abanya Ethiopia atwaye barabandanya ata nkomanzi.

Image caption Abanya Ethiopia b'abayahudi bafungura mu bwato bwa Israeli

Inyuma yaho basanze gutwara izo mpunzi bazicishije mu mazi vyotuma bafatwa, baciye biga ubundi buryo.

Abo bakozi ba Mossad baciye batangura kurondera ahoja ikibuga c'indege mu bugaragwa, aho indege yo mu bwoko bwa Hercule C130 ishobora kugwa, izo mpunzi zigashobora kuvanwa mu gihugu n'indege mw'ibanga.

Kwimura impunzi n'indege

Ibikogwa vyo kwimura izo mpunzi n'indege vyahavuye bitangura. Gad n'abo bari kumwe bararonse ubutumwa ko hari ikibuga c'indege casizwe n'abongereza igihe c'ingwano ya kabiri y'isi yose, cari hirya y'inkengera y'ikiyaga.

Mu kwezi kwa Gatanu mu 1982, indege ya mbere yo mu bwoko bwa Hercule itwaye umugwi w'abasirikare yaraguye kuri ico kibuga hagati mw'ijoro.

Haheze imyaka, umwe mu banya Ethiopia 130 batabawe bakajanwa n'iyo ndege yabwiye Gad ati: "Wewe ntuzi ico bisigura kuri jewe kubona nja mu ndege mu bugaragwa bwa Sudani hagati mw'ijoro.

"Sinari bwigere mbona indege mu buzima bwanje. Nibona nk'umuhanuzi Yonasi agiye mu nda ya "baleine" , munyuma nkakanguka ndi Siyoni muri Israeli inyuma y'amasaha atatu."

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Indege ya Israeli yo mu bwoko bwa Hercule C130

Bamaze gutwara impunzi kabiri muri mwen'ubwo buryo, Mossad yahavuye imenya ko ubutegetsi bwa Sudani bwamenye ibikogwa.

Uwigana atipfuza kumenyekana avuga ko hari umuntu yagiye kubarega, munyuma uwo mugwi usabwa kurondera ahandi hantu indege zoja ziragwa hatokwikekwa.

Bahavuye batora ibibanza vyiza hafi ya Gedaref, bifasha ku buryo impunzi zagenda amasaha make mw'ibarabara.

"Nta bibuga vy'indege vyari bihari, hari ku bugaragwa," nkuko vyiganwa n'umwe mu basumyi b'urusaku atashatse kumenyekana.

Naho hari ukwo, ingendo 17 zo mu kinyegero zarashoboye gukogwa, zifashijwemwo n'abitwa ko bigisha kwibira baba kuri ico kigwati co kuruhukiramwo.

Mu 1984, inzara yarabaye ndanse muri Sudani, biba ngombwa kwihutisha ibikogwa vyo kwimura izo mpunzi.

Ubutegetsi bwa Amerika bubifashijemwo hakarihwa n'amahera menshi, Gen Jaafar Nimeiri yaremeye kurekura impunzi z'abayahudi zungururizwa i Buraya, zigurukiye i Khartoum.

Yasavye ko bikogwa mw'ibanga yanka kugira ingaruka zivuye mu bindi bihugu vy'abarabu.

Ku ngendo 28 hakoreshejwe Boeing 707, abanya Ethiopia b'abayahudi 6380 barajanywe muri Israeli mu gikogwa cataziwe "Operation Moise".

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Abanya Ethiopia b'abayahudi bari mu ndege ya gisirikare ya Israeli Boeing 707 bagurutse bavuye i Addis Ababa mu 1991

Ayo makuru ntiyarazwi muri Israeli, ariko yahavuye amenywa n'ibigo vy'itangazamakuru, nkuko uwo mukozi wa Mossad atashatse kumenyekana avuga.

Ayo makuru yaramenyekanye

Ibimenyeshamakuru vyarasohoye iyo nkuru kw'isi itariki 5 ukwezi kwa Mbere 1985, munyuma ubutegetsi bwa Sudani buca buhagarika izo ngendo, bwongera buhakana ko bwakoranye na Israeli ku kibazo cerekeye abanya Siyoni.

Mossad yarabandanije igenzura ikigwati c'uburuhukiro ca Arous, abakozi bayo bagenda inyuma yaho zihinduriye imirisho muri Sudani itariki 6 ukwezi kwa Kane 1985, igihe Gen Nimeiri akuriwe ku butegetsi n'igisirikare.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Gen Nimeiri

Ico gisirikare gifashe ubutegetsi caciye gifata ingingo yo kwirukana abo basumyi b'urusaku, kugira ngo bagumye isura nziza mu bihugu vy'abarabu.

Uwurongoye Mossad yaciye abategeka kuva murico kigwati c'uburuhukiro, babikora umunsi ukurikira.

"Batandatu muri twebwe bavuye mw'ico kigwati mu miduga ibiri imbere y'umutwenzi," niko umwe mu basomyi b'urusaku atipfuza kumenyekana avuga.

Indege yo mu bwoko bwa C130 yatuye mu buraruko ahantu tutari bwigere tugurukira, turayinjira turataha muhira.

"Hari hakiri abakerarugendo muri ico kigwati," niko avuga.

"Bavyutse bisanga ari bonyene muri ubwo bugaragwa. Abakozi bo muri ico gihugu niho bari bakiri, ariko abandi bose - umwigisha wo kwibira mu mazi, umugore agenzura ico kigwati hamwe n'abandi bakozi ba Mossad bose bari bagiye."

Haheze igihe ico kigwati carugaye, hasigaye abanya Ethiopia 492 barindiriye kuja i Siyoni.

Munyuma icegera c'umukuru w'igihugu wa Amerika George Bush yarabifashijemwo, bajanwa n'indege ya Amerika muri Israeli.

Inyuma yaho abandi banya Israeli bo mu bwoko bw'aba Beta baratahukanywe, bose hamwe bashika 18000 batanguye ubuzima muri ico gihugu c'abayahudi.

Ferede Aklum ari muri bo.

"Abanya Ethiopia b'abayahudi nizo ncungu muri ino nkuru," niko Gad avuga ariko anywa icayi i Tel Aviv, "Si abadereva b'indege, canke b'ubwato canke abakozi ba Mossad.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Raffi Berg
Image caption Gad Shimron muri kino gihe

"Iyo nibutse ingene babaho - amabi babamwo nta muntu ashobora kuyabamwo umunsi umwe.

"Twe twakoze akazi kacu."

Ibindi bisa n’ibi