Ni ibiki bishobora gutuma abantu bazimangana kw'isi?

Abantu baje n'imiduga bafata amasanamu y'ikirunga co ku zinga rya Eyjafjallajokull mu 2010 Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Abantu baje n'imiduga bafata amasanamu y'ikirunga co ku zinga rya Eyjafjallajokull mu 2010

Umuhero w'abantu kw'isi ni ikintu giteye amakenga abanyagihugu n'imvyaro zizokurikira, naho ushobora gutegwa n'ibiza vyibasira abantu isinzi, ukuri nyakuri nuko iyo bishitse, abantu ubwabo baba babifisemwo uruhara.

Abantu benshi bamenyereye ibiza vy'akataraboneka nk'ikibuye (astéroide) catikije inganda mu sinema Armageddon canke "itera ry'abanyamahanga" mu yindi sinema "Independence Day".

Mu gihe umuhero w'isi ushoboka, kwiyumvira ko ivyoshika vyoba nk'ivyo muri izo sinema, bituma umuntu yibagira ibikomeye bibangamiye isi muri bino bihe.

Ntibishobora gukina mu cuma cawe
Ikirunga ca Kilauea mw'izinga rya Hawaii muri Amerika, kiriko kiratikiza inganda

Umugabo umwe yaturiwe n'ibirunga muri Hawaii

Ibiza vyoturuka ku birunga

Mu 1815 ikirunga caturitse ku musozi Tambora, muri Endoneziya, cishe abantu barenga 70000, gituma umunyota ukwira ikirere.

Catumye umuco w'izuba uza ku isi ugabanuka, bituma havugwa iciswe "umwaka utagira ici".

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora killed more than 70,000 people

Ikiyaga Toba, kiri mu mpera za Sumatra, kiduha inkuru ishingiye ku kiza.

Cavutse inyuma y'ikirunga gikomeye cadutse mu myaka 75000 irangiye, ico kirunga cibasira isi yose.

Bivugwa ko ivyabaye vyatumye abantu bari kw'isi bagabanuka, ariko ivyo bikaba bikirimwo amadidane.

Mu gihe ikirunga c'urugero nka mwenurwo giteye ubwoba, nta muntu vyari bikwiye gutera umwitwarariko.

Ibirunga bikaze cane hamwe n'ibindi biza, nk'urubuye rwo mu kirere ruguye kw'isi canke inyenyeri ituritse, nta muntu yovyitega mu 2019 canke no mu wundi mwaka.

Ivyo biza vyitezwe ku ruhe rugero mu 2019?

Ku bice 1.5%, ikiza c'akamangu kotandukira abantu benshi.

Ku bice 0.6%, ingwano ruhonyanganda.

Ku bice 0.6%, uruzuba rwokwaduka rukibasira imihora y'umuyagankuba.

Ku bice 0.001%, ikirunga co ku rugero rwo hejuru cane

Image caption Igipimo Datapic cihweza ibiza bishobora kwaduka mu 2019

Ubwoba buriyongera

Hari ibiza bitegwa n'abantu ubwabo.

Nk'akarorero, ikigo ca ONU gifasha mu gisata c'amagara y'abantu "Organisation Mondiale pour la Santé" (OMS) hamwe n'inama mpuzamakungu ku vy'ubutunzi "Forum Economique Mondial" bavuga ko ikibazo c'ihindagurika ry'ibihe n'ivyo ghihitanisha kiri mu vyambere vyotera umuhero w'isi ku vyashizwe ku rutonde mu 2019.

Mu biganiro vya ONU biheruka kw'ihindagurika ry'ibihe, uturere nka twose twavuga ko ari ikibazo co "gupfa no gukira".

Abantu benshi barimwo Sir David Attenborough, basanga iryo hindagurika ry'ibihe rishobora kuzimanganya isi.

Ubwo bwoba buturuka ku bintu vyinshi, nko kwicwa n'imishwarara y'izuba hamwe n'urugero rw'amazi yoduga bigatuma haduka amapfa, abantu bagata ingo zabo ku bwinshi.

Ubundi bwoba buturuka ku buhinga bushasha isi igezeko nk'ibijanye n'ivyo ubwenge ndemano "Intelligence Artificielle" bishobora gushikanako.

Ikindi gishobora gutuma abantu bahona ni ingwano ruhonyanganda.

Mu gihe abantu bashinze amaso uruhagarara ruri mu bihugu vy'ibihangange, ubuhinga bugenda buvuka nabwo nyene buteye ubwoba.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Abantu biga kugwanya akamangu nk'inkoko mu Bushinwa

Ikindi cobangamira ubuzima kw'isi n'ikiza c'ingwara yotandukira isi yose.

Nk'akarorero, akamangu kica muri rusangi abantu 700000, igatwara amahera imiliyaridi 500 z'amadolari ku mwaka.

Umuntu yotanga akarorero k'akamangu kigeze kwibasira igihugu ca Espagne mu 1918 kishe abantu imiliyoni 50.

Ariko incanco ziratuma ubwo bwoba bugabanuka.

Umuntu yokwihweza gute urugero harura gute How to calculate the chance of an existential risk

  • Kuraba ivyegeranyo vyasohowe muri kahise cane cane ku bijanye n'ibirunga hamwe n'aho ibibuye biva mu kirere vyibasiye.
  • Kwihweza ibiza vyigeze gushika muri kahise n'ingene vyatanguye.
  • Nko mu Bwongereza baratunganije urutonde rw'ibiza vyotera igihugu, harimwo imyizure, ibiza bituruka ku kirere no ku ngwara
Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Umunyota w'ibirunga ushobora guhungabanya ingendo z'indege

Ikirunga caturitse mu 2010 kw'izinga rya Eyjafjallajokull nta muntu n'umwe cishe ariko catumye ibibuga vy'indege vyugara iminsi itandatu mu bihugu vya Buraya.

Mu gihe ibintu vyinshi tugenderako bisaba ko haba umuyagankuba, ubuhinga bwa mudasobwa na interineti, icoza kuvyonona - yaba imishwarara y'izuba ishushe cane canke ikigwanisho ca "nucléaire gituritse" - bishobora kubangamira ubuzima.

Ingene ibiza vyokwirindwa

Hashobora kuba inzira zo kugabanya umuzo w'ivyo biza.

Hari inkuru ya kera y'umwami Canute w'aba Danois yabwiriza ikiyaga ngo gisubire inyuma.

Yarazi ko adashobora guhagarika imikuba y'amazi, yumva acitse inkokora, ivyo navyo bikaba bishobora kudushikira igihe duhanganye n'ibiza.

Ariko ico mwomenya nuko aba Danois bashoboye kwigiza amazi inyuma kuva kera: barubatse impome zihagarika amazi, barakamya n'amazi mu duce tumwe tumwe kugira birindi ibitero vy'amazi menshi.

Co kimwe, abantu barashobora kwiyumvira ingene bokwiyungunganya ngo bahagarike ibiza bishobora gutera muri kazoza.

Ivyo bishobora gufasha ku buryo umwaka w'i 2019 n'imyaka izokurikira, ikaba imyaka ata nkomanzi ku banyagihugu.

Ibindi bisa n’ibi