Ibihugu vyari bikwiye gusaba ikigongwe ku mabi vyakoze mu bukoroni?

I Circa mu 1518, umurondezi w'uturere wo muri Espanye, Hernando Cortez ahura n'umwami w'aba Aztecs, Montezuma. Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Igihugu ubu citwa Mexique camaze imyaka 300 gikoronijwe na Espanye imbere y'uko kironka intahe yo kwikukira mu kinjana ca 19

Umukuru w'igihugu ca Mexique yarandikiye umwami wa Espanye Filipe wa 6 hamwe na Papa Francis ababwiriza gusaba ikigongwe kw'ihohoterwa ry'ikiremwa muntu ryakozwe igihe haba ukwigarurira umugabane wa Amerika.

Si ubwa mbere igihugu canke umugwi w'abantu bisaba ngo hasabwe ikigongwe ku bintu vyabaye mu myaka myinshi iheze.

Aha turihweza igihe hamwe n'igituma ibihugu bihitamwo gusaba ikigongwe.

Gusaba ikigongwe kwa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika kubera ubucakara n'ivangura

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Mu 1865, ingingo ihinduwe ya 13 mw'ibwirizwa shingiro yakuyeko icese ubucakara muri Amerika

Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zaragaragaje ko zicuza kubera ubucakara mu vyemezo bibiri bitandukanye - kimwe co mu 2008 cashikirijwe n'umukuru w'inama nshingamateka hamwe n'icashikirijwe na leta mu 2009.

Ivyo vyemezo vyose bibiri vyasaba ikigongwe abanye Amerika bamuka muri Afrika kw'izina rya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, ku mabi bakorewe, bo n'abasokuru babo, mu gihe c'ubucakara hamwe n'imyaka myinshi y'ivangura yakurikiye.

Naho ivyo vyemezo bitagize benshi batabishima, kuba inama nshingamateka na nkenguzamateka zitarumvikanye ku cemezo kimwe, bishira ahabona zimwe mu ngorane nkuru nkuru zishika iyo haje ikibazo co gusaba ikigongwe.

Ikigongwe c'inama nkenguzamateka carimwo ingingo izitira, ivuga ko ico kigongwe kidashobora gukoreshwa mu gusaba amafaranga y'indishi kuri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, kubera ubucakara n'ivangura.

Ibi vyariyamirijwe na bamwe mu bashingamateka bo mw'ishirahamwe ry'abirabura, bo bashaka ko abamuka ku bacakara bahabwa amafaranga y'inshumbusho.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Prezida Obama yaranse ko hatangwa inshumbusho y'amafaranga, ahubwo asaba aho hashirwa "amashure meza mu bice bikenye vy'imiji" hamwe n'ubuzi ku batabufise

Uwari umukuru w'igihugu ico gihe, Barack Obama, yarashimye ivyo bigomwe bivuye mu nama nshingamateka, ariko ntiyigeze asaba ko hatangwa inshumbusho igihe yari akiri ku butegetsi.

Abantu bava mu miryangi ifise kahise nk'aka Bwana Obama berekana ingene ikibazo co gutanga inshumbusho kigoye - kahise ka nyina wiwe w'umuzungukazi vyaragaragaye ko kabayemwo abacakara hamwe n'abari bafise n'imiburiburi umuca umwe, mu gihe se wiwe w'umwirabura yashitse muri Amerika haciye imyaka myinshi cane ubucakara bwaraheze.

No mu gihe inshumbusho yotangwa, ninde yoyitanga kandi igahabwa nde?

Ibibazo vy'uko ikigongwe coherekezwa n'inshumbusho y'amafaranga vyarabujije abarongozi benshi kwemera amakosa ku mugaragaro.

Uruhara rw'Ubwongereza mu kigoyi co muri Irlande

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Image caption Ikigongwe catumye umubano w'Abongereza n'abanye Irlande unaguka

Nyuma y'imyaka 150 hateye ikigoyi co muri Irelande mu 1845, umushikiranganji wa mbere w'Ubwongereza, Tony Blair, yagize ati: "Abari ku butegetsi ico gihe i London baratereranye abanyagihugu babo."

Abashika umuriyoni barapfuye abandi imiriyoni zibiri baromoka igihe umwimbu w'ibiraya muri Irlande wononekara kandi inama nshingamateka y'Ubwongereza yarakweze ibirenge mu gukurako itegeko ryabuza gutumiza ivyo kurya hanze.

Ijambo ryo mu 1997 ryaje igihe imigenderanire hagati y'Ubwongereza na Irlande (yari igece c'Ubwongereza gushika mu 1922) yariko iranaguka, ishikana ku masezerano yiswe Good Friday Agreement, yakemuye vyinshi mu bibazo vyakwega indyane mu bihugu bibiri bipfa Irlande y'uburaruko.

Abatabishimye baridoze bavuga ko amajambo ya Bwana Blair atari ikigongwe gikwiye cemejwe na leta.

Naho ata nshumbusho yigeze yemererwa Irlande ku bw'ico kigoyi, mu minsi iheze Ubwongereza bwararishe amafaranga abantu bwahora butwara.

Mu 2013, leta yarasavye ikigongwe, kandi iremera inshumbusho y'imiriyoni 25 z'amadolari, ku banye Kenya bakubaguwe mu gihe c'imigumuko ya Mau Mau mu myaka y'1950.

Inshumbusho y'Ubudage bw'Uburengero kw'ihonyabwoko ry'Abayahudi

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Reuters
Image caption Abayahudi bashika imiriyoni zitandatu barishwe mw'ihonyabwoko rizwi nka Holocaust

Bitandukanye n'ibindi bihe, Ubudage bw'Uburengero bwaranyarukije kwemera kuriha indishi nyuma y'intambara ya kabiri y'isi, ku mabi yakozwe na leta y'aba Nazi yahora itwara Ubudage.

Mu 1952, Chancellier Konrad Adenauer yagize ati: "Ivyaha vy'agahomerabunwa vyarakozwe kw'izina ry'abanyagihugu b'Ubudage, bigatuma dutegerezwa kubibazwa mu bwenge no mu buryo bw'amahera."

Kuriha indishi y'akababaro y'amahera yahawe Isiraheri hamwe n'abacitse kw'icumu rya Holocaust, vyatanguye mu 1953, ubu bimaze gushika ku mahera imiriyaridi 70 z'amadolari.

Nkumbere ku buryo butangaje, abasavye inshumbusho ni bake mu bakozweko n'ayo mahano.

Abatabishima bavuga ko mu gihe Isiraheri yemeye amahera yahawe n'Ubudage bw'Uburengero, vyoba bingana no kubabarira aba Nazi ku vyaha bakoze.

Igice c'amahera, yahawe Isiraheri nk'inshumbusho yo gutuza impunzi z'Abayahudi zatahutse ziva i Buraya, yafashije gutunga ico gihugu mu myaka yaco yambere yo kubaho.

Kugorwa no gusaba ikigongwe

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Intatemwa ya Yasukuni i Tokyo itera iteka abantu imiriyoni 2.5 bapfuye, ariko kandi ikibuka abagizi ba nabi bahamijwe icaha kuva ku gihe c'intambara ya kabiri y'isi

Ibindi bihugu nta cemezo gifatika vyafashe.

Naho Ubuyapani bwashize umukono ku masezerano y'inyuma y'intambara ya kabiri y'isi na Korea y'epfo hamwe n'Ubushinwa, arimwo no kuriha amafaranga, imigenderanire n'abo babanyi ba hafi yagiye irazamwo agatotsi.

Umushikiranganji wa mbere w'Ubuyapani, Shinzo Abe, yaranenzwe ku kuntu adatomora neza ngo yemange niba Ubuyapani "bwarasotoranye" muri iyo ntambara, kandi yaragendeye, anarungika imperezwa, ku ntatemwa itera iteka abantu benshi barimwo n'inkozi z'ikibi zo mu ntambara.

Ariko kandi yaremeye inshumbusho y'amafaranga ku bagore b'abanye Koreyakazi bakoreshejwe n'abasirikare b'Ubuyapani nk'incakara zo gusambanya mu gihe c'intambara ya kabiri y'isi.

Co kimwe n'abanyepolitike benshi, Bwana Abe vyaramugoye cane kunganisha umwuka wo gukunda igihugu uri iwe no kugerageza kugumana imigenderanire myiza n'abarongozi b'ibindi bihugu.