Umunsi mpuzamakungu wahariwe kurwanya malaria, tumenye iki kugira tuyirwanye?

Malaria iterwa n'umubu ufise imigera yayo Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Malaria iterwa n'umubu ufise imigera yayo

Tworwanya malaria gute?

Malaria ni indwara ishobora kuvurwa igakira kandi ishobora kwirindwa, ariko ibandanya ihitana abantu batari bake: ishirahamwe rijejwe amagara y'abantu kw'isi, OMS, rivuga ko uko iminota ibiri iheze iyo ndwara yica umwana, abantu barenga imiliyoni 200 ku mwaka nabo bakayandura.

Mu myaka icumi iheze, hakomeje guterwa intambwe mu kurwanya malaria, ariko kuva mu mwaka wa 2015, ibitigiri vyagumye hahandi. Icegeranyo c'ishirahamwe OMS kuri malaria kw'isi casohotse mu mwaka wa 2018, cerekana ko ibitigiri bitamanutse biboneka hagati y'imyaka ya 2015 na 2017.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Malaria iravugwa igakira kandi ikirindwa

Mu gihe igenekerezo rya 25 z'ukwezi kwa kane ari umunsi mpuzamakungu wahariwe kurwanya malaria, ng'ibi ivyo ukeneye kumenya kuri iyo ndwara:

  • Malaria ni indwara ibangamiye amagara y'abantu iterwa n'ubwoko bune bw'imigera ya Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax.
  • Iyo migera iterwa n'imibu y'ingore.
  • Iyo ndwara iravurwa igakira kandi igashobora kwirindwa.
  • Ibiharuro bitangwa na OMS vyerekana ko mu mwaka wa 2017, abantu bashika imiliyoni 219 bava mu bihugu 87 banduye malaria.
  • Muri uwo mwaka nyene wa 2017, abashika ibihumbi 435 barahitanywe na malaria .
  • Umugabane wa Afrika niwo usinzikajwe cane na malaria gusumba ibindi bihugu vyo kw'isi - mu 2017, ibice 92 kw'ijana (92%) vy'abarwaye malaria kw'isi vyari muri Afrika, mu gihe ibice 93 kw'ijana vy'abahitanywe n'iyo ndwara kw'isi vyari muri Afrika.
  • Amahera yakoreshejwe mu ntumbero yo kurwanya malaria yashitse hafi imiliyaridi zitatu z'amadolari mu mwaka wa 2017 .

Ibimenyetso

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Kumeneka umutwe, kurura mu kanwa n'ukwumva imbeho ni vyo bimenyetso vya mbere vya malaria

Ibimenyetso vya malaria ni - kumeneka umutwe, kurura mu kanwa n'ukwumva imbeho - akenshi bigatangura mu minsi 10 gushika 15 inyuma y'ukuribwa n'umubu utera malaria.

Ivyo bimenyetso birashobora kwibonekeza ku rugero rudateye ubwoba, ku buryo bishobora kugorana kumenya ko ari malaria, ariko mu gihe umurwayi ativujije mu kiringo c'amasaha 14, malaria irashobora kumusinzikaza, mbere agashobora n'ukuhasiga ubuzima.

Ni bande babangamirwa?

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Abana bari munsi y'imyaka itanu nibo bakarirwa cane

Mu mwaka wa 2017, hafi igice c'abantu baba kw'isi bari mu ngorane z'ugushobora kwandura malaria.

Abana bari munsi y'imyaka itanu nibo bakarirwa: mu mwaka wa 2017, ibice 61 kw'ijana (ibihumbi 266) vy'abahitanywe n'iyo ndwara bari abana.

Iyindi mirwi, nk'abakenyezi bibungenze canke abantu bafise abasoda bake mu mubiri, iri mu mirwi ishobora kwandura.

Ni ibihe bice vy'isi bibangamiwe?

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Image caption Abenshi mu bafatwa n'abahitanwa na malaria bava mu karere ka Afrika yo munsi y'ubugaragwa bwa Sahara

Ibiharuro bitangwa na OMS vyerekana ko abenshi mu bafatwa n'abahitanwa n'iyo ndwara bava mu burere bwa Afrika yo musi y'ubugaragwa bwa Sahara.

Ariko n'ibice vyo muri Aziya y'ubumanuko bushira ubuseruko, ubuseruko bw'ikiyaga Méditerranée, uburengero bw'ibahari Pacifique hamwe no mu bice vya Amerika, birashobora kubangamirwa na malaria.

Mu mwaka wa 2017, ibihugu bitanu vyagize abantu bangana hafi igice c'abarwaye iyo ndwara kw'isi : Nigeria (25%), Republika y'Intwaro Rusangi ya Kongo (11%), Mozambike (5%), Ubuhindi (4%) hamwe na Uganda (4%).

Ingene yandukira

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Imibu ifise imigera ya malaria irandukiza iyo ndwara

Akenshi, malaria yandukira umuntu igihe ariwe n'umubu w'ingore witwa Anophèle - hari ubwoko burenga 400 bw'iyo mibu, muri bwo hafi 30 bukaba bushobora gutera malaria.

Imibu yose itera malaria iryana hagati y'umugoroba n'ubucagucagu.

Iyo mibu y'ingore ita amagi mu mazi, hakavamwo ibinyo arivyo bizovamwo imibu iyo bikuze; iyo mibu y'ingore rero irondera amaraso kugira ngo ishobore gukora amagi.

Ingene twoyirinda

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Gukoresha umusegetera urimwo umuti ni bumwe mu buryo nyabwo bwo kwikingira malaria

OMS isaba gukingira abantu bose bashobora kwandura malaria hakoreshejwe uburyo nyabwo.

Uburyo bubiri bwo gukinga malaria - gukoresha umusegetera urimwo umuti be n'ugupompa mu mazu - nibwo buryo nyabwo.

Kuryama mu musegetera urimwo umuti bishobora gutuma imibu idashikira umuntu.

Ugupompa umuti wica imibu mu mazu y'uburaro n'izindi nyubakwa vyokorwa nka rimwe canke kabiri mu mwaka.

Malaria irashobora kandi kwirindwa mu gufata neza imiti irwanya malaria ku bafata ingendo, abakenyezi bibungenze be n'abana.

Gupima no kuvura malaria

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Kwipimisha n'ukwivuza hakiri kare bituma iyo ndwara ishobora kurwanywa

Malaria irashobora kuvurwa kandi igakira - iyo malaria yiketswe ishobora gupimwa ikemezwa mu minota 30 canke munsi yayo hakoreshejwe ibipimo vy'ugupima imigera (hakoreshejwe ivyuma vyabigenewe canke mu buryo bunyaruka ).

OMS ivuga ko iyo umuntu yipimishije kandi agafata imiti hakiri kare, bigabanya malaria, bikarinda impfu zitewe na malaria kandi bikagabanya ukwandukira kw'iyo ndwara.

Umuti mwiza uriho - cane cane kuri malaria iterwa n'umugera P. falciparum - ushingiye kuri artemisinin uvanganijwe n'iyindi (ACT).

Imigera irinda imiti yica imibu n'imiti ihabwa abarwaye

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Image caption Umuntu yokwama yipimisha kugira ngo barabe nimba imiti igifise inguvu y'ukurwanya malaria

Ishirahamwe OMS riragabisha ko biboneka ko imibu y'ingore igenda irinda gusumba imiti yica imibu n'imiti y'abarwaye - ivyo bigasubiza inyuma utwigoro two kurwanya malaria.

Ingorane ikaba ari uko ibikoreshwa mu kurwanya iyo ndwara bishobora gushika ahantu ntibibe bigikora.

Ibiharuro biri mu cegeranyo giheruka gusohoka vyerekana ko mu bihugu 68, imibu yagiye irinda n'imiburiburi umwe mu bwoko bw'imiti itanu isanzwe ikoreshwa mu kurwanya imibu mu kiringo ca 2010-2017.

Iyindi ngorane igenda igaruka ikaba ari imiti itagishobora kuvura malaria.

OMS ivuga ko gukingira ubushobozi bw'imiti ari ngirakamaro mu kuvura n'ukurwanya iyo ndwara - igasaba ko hokwama ibikorwa vyo gucungera iyo ndwara mu bihugu yiziziye.

Intumbero ikaba ari ukugira ngo mu gihe bibonetse ko umuti utagishoboye kuvura iyo ndwara, bimenyekane hakiri kare cane kugira ngo hatorwe inyishu ningoga kandi nyayo.