Umunsi wo kurwanya itabi: Ingene ingeso yo 'kunywa itabi' yahindutsemwo 'urupfu'

Umushakashatsi wo mu Buholandi Everard, canke Gilles Everaerts mu ki Neerlandais Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Umushakashatsi mu buvuzi Everard yaremera ko itabi rifise ubushobozi bwo gusubirira abaganga

Hashize imyaka amajana itabi ritabonwa kumwe na bose, mu gihe twimirije uwa 31 z'ukwa gatanu, umunsi amakungu yahariye kurwanya itabi, aya mashusho arerekana uburyo abantu bahinduye uko babona itabi.

Kera itabi ryabonwa nk'"umuti mwiza wo gukabura", ariko ubu risigaye ribonwa nk'"inyanduruko y'urupfu yaranze nk'urwiri".

Ishami ry'ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu rijejwe amagara y'abantu OMS ryemaza ko itabi ryica ica kabiri c'abarinywa.

Uko umwaka utashe, miriyoni zitandatu z'abanywa itabi barapfa bahitanywe naryo, nayo abagera ku 900,000 bakazira imyotsi yaryo batarinywa.

Ariko haheze imyaka amajana, kunywa itabi bifatwa nk'inyifato nziza ku magara, kandi igiterwa c'itabi, Nicotiana, cari cataziriwe 'icatsi gihezagiye' mu kinjana ca cumi na gatandatu.

Akwirikiye ico ciyumviro cari cakwijwe hose, umushakashatsi wo mu Buholandi Giles Everard, yaremera ko ivyiza vy'itabi bizotuma ata n'abaganga bongera gukenerwa.

Mu gitabo 'Panacea; or the Universal Medicine, a Discovery of the Wonderful Virtues of Tobacco taken in a Pipe' yanditse mu 1587, yagize ati "Umwotsi waryo uvura ubumara bwose n'ingwara zishobora kubaho".

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Image caption Ubwoko bwinshi bw'igiterwa c'itabi buturuka muri Amerika, aho cakoreshwa mu kuvura ingwara imbere y'uko abanyabulaya bahagera mu kinjana ca cumi na gatanu

Uwa mbere mu batanguye kugerageza itabi nk'umuti yabaye Christopher Columbus, uwazungurutse isi, yajabutse ibahari Atlantic, yanabaye umuzungu wa mbere yashitse mu buraruko bwa Amerika.

Umwigisha Anne Charlton yatangaje mu kinyamakuru 'The Royal Society of Medicine', iri geragezwa ry'itabi na Christopher Columbus, yarikoresha nk'umuti.

Mu 1492, yahavuye abona ko itabi rinyobwa riramitswe mu nkono mu mazinga ya Cuba, Haiti na Bahamas.

Rimwe na rimwe amababi y'itabi yaraturirigwa mu bibanza bashaka gusukura neza bikavanwamwo imigera y'ingwara, canke kurwanya ingwara nyene n'intege nke.

Itabi rivanze n'indimu n'ibumba ryera, vyakoreshwa nk'umuti wo kwoza amenyo mu gihugu ubu gisigaye citwa Venezuela, eka n'ubu mu Buhinde biracakoreshwa.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Wellcome Collection
Image caption Abaganga n'abakora imiti mu bihugu vya Bulaya bari bitayeho kumenya uko itabi ryokoreshwa mu buvuzi

Hari n'ibindi bimenyetso hagati mu misozi.

Umunya Portugal Pedro Alvares Cabral, yagenze amahanga ya kure agashika ubwa mbere muri Brezil mu 1500, yavuze ko t betum - nk'uko bita ico giterwa rimwe na rimwe - ryakoreshwa mu kuvura ibivyimba n'ibindi bikomere vy'indani mu mubiri.

Naho mu citwa New Spain ubu hasigaye hazwi nka Mexique, intumwa ya Espagne akaba n'umumenyeshamana Bernardino de Sahagun, yigiye ku bavuzi baho ko ingwara zifatira mu dusabo two mu misaya nk'amabinga zishobora kuvugwa baciye indasago bagakanyiramwo itabi rishushe rivanze n'umunyu.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Wellcome Collection
Image caption Mu kinjana ca 19, abaganga biga uko umuntu ateye mu mubiri, bahimirizwa kunywa agatabi kugira bikize umunuko w'umubiri wapfuye

Abaganga n'abadandaza imiti i Bulaya barihuse kumenya ico itabi rishobora gufasha mu buvuzi.

Mu binjana vyakurikiye nk'uko bivugwa n'ikibanza c'iratiro kikaba n'ububiko busomerwamwo canke bugatirwamwo ibitabo vyanditswe ku magara y'abantu 'Wellcome Collection', inkono y'itabi canke agasegereti vyafatwa nka ngombwa ku munyeshure yiga ubuganga, cane cane mu cumba babagiramwo ibiziga biga ibihimba vy'indani mu mubiri.

Uwaba ariko arabaga ikiziga yahanurwa gusogota agatabi kugira yikingire umunuko ndetse n'ingwara bishobora kugiturukako.

Igihe hatera akaranda mu muji wa Londres mu 1665, abana bigishijwe kunywa itabi mw'ishure.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Wellcome Collection
Image caption Itabi ryarakoreshwa mu kwikingira ikiza c'akaranda kari kateye mu 1665 muri Londres

Abantu barizera ko umwotsi w'itabi vyakekwa ko uvura akamoto kabi abantu bibaza ko ariko katera ingwara y'akaranda kwandukira.

Abari bajejwe guhamba badomeka itabi kugirango 'ntibandukirwe n'ako karanda'.

Ariko rero no mu baryemera kera hari abari bafise amakenga yo kwibaza nimba koko ari umuti.

Umuganga w'Umwongereza John Cotta, yanditse ibitabo ku buvuzi n'ubupfumu, yavuze mu 1612, ko ico catsi cafatwa ico gihe nk'inyishu y'ibibazo vvose n'ingwara zose, bashobora kuzosanga gishobora kuvura ingwara nyinshi cane.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Wellcome Collection
Image caption Mu kinjana ca 18, itabi ryarakoreshwa mu kurabura abantu basomye nturi, kugira bagarure ubwenge kandi basusuruke.

N'ubwo hari umwitwarariko, itabi ryarakomeje kunyobwa ku bwinshi kandi abakora imiti bararyamana mu bubiko bwabo.

Bumwe mu buryo budasanzwe itabi ryakoreshwa, harimwo kuryina abantu basomye nturi.

Abavuzi bibaza ko itabi rifasha kugarura ubushuhe mu muntu yatwawe yaba yatimvye kandi rigafasha no kumugarurira ubwenge.

Ibikoresho vyashirwa ku nkombe z'uruzi Thames kugira vyifashishwe vyihuta mu gihe hogira uwutwarwa.

Gukanyira itabi mu gutwi kw'umuntu kugwaye vyarakoreshwa mu kinjana ca 18.

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Image caption Camel ni ubwoko bw'itabi ryiswe iry'abaganga

Inyuma yo gusanga ubumara bwa Nicotine mw'itabi, mu 1828, abaganga batanguye kutishinga gukoresha itabi mu buvuzi ubwo ari bwo bwose.

Ariko imiti ikoze mw'itabi yakomeje gutangwa, irimwo uwo gucisha mu mwoyo (umwino) mu kuvura umwumira (imbatwe), gukomereka urura iyo umuntu agiye ku mwanda mukuru kubera umwumira nyene, canke mu kuvura inzoka zo mu nda.

Igihe ibibazo bitegwa n'itabi bikomeje gutera umwitwarariko hagati y'imyaka ya 1920s na 1930s , ikigo Camel cakomeje guhumuriza abantu kivuga ko abaganga bahanura abantu kunywa itabi kandi ko nabo nyene barinywa.

Cavuga kandi ko abaririmvyi banywa itabi kugira ngo "bayure imihogo yabo".

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Image caption Itangazo rivuga ngo "urakeneye kwikingira gutangwa no gutumura agatabi gusa"

Mu myaka 30 iheze, amabi ategwa n'itabi ku magara y'abantu yaramenyekanye neza, co kimwe n'ingaruka ryazo ku baba iruhande y'abanywi b'itabi.

Ibi vyatumye ibihugu vyinshi bibuza kunywera itabi mu bibanza vyugaye.

Amasekeza yo kubuza itabi yakoresha uburyo bukaze kugirango ubutumwa bushike ku bantu benshi.

Bimwe mu bihugu vyagize itegeko, ingendo yo gushira ku mapaki y'itabi amafoto y'abantu bageze ku mpfiro kubera kanseri y'amahaha (ibihaha), ingwara z'umutima n'izindi ziterwa n'itabi.

Mu Bwongereza, igipupe bataziriye Smokey Sue, carakoreshejwe mu kwigisha abagore bibungenze ingaruka z'itabi ku mwana ari mu nda.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Science Museum London
Image caption Muri kino gishusho nfasha-nyigisho, umwotsi w'umunywi w'itabi yibungenze utandukira 'umwana ari mu nda'

Mu minsi iheze, hari haharawe e-cigarettes, itumura akotsi nk'umusogoto w'itabi ariko ataririmwo, wakoreshwa mu gusubirira itabi.

Izi segereti zifise bateri zicomekwa ku muyagankuba, bigafasha gukwega akotsi ka 'nicotine' mu mwuka atari umwotsi w'itabi.

E-cigarettes ntizitera ubumara bwa 'monoxide de carbone', canke 'tar', ubumara bubiri buboneka mw'itabi, ariko rero igisata c'amagara y'abantu mu Bwongereza kimenyesha ko ivyo bitavuze ko izo e-cigarettes ataco zonona.

'Vaping' canke gutumura akotsi ka e-cigarette, navyo ntibibonwa kumwe na bose.

Philip Morris International, ikigo ca mbere kw'isi gikora itabi, catandukiriye isoko rya e-cigarette, kimwe na juuls, vyarezwe muri Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, biregwa kuresha urwaruka ku mbuga hwaniro mu kwamamaza amatabi yavyo akoreshwa bateri .

Abajejwe kugenzura ikoreshwa ry'itabi muri ico gihugu baratujije aborohereza imiyabaga ishaka kugura e-cigarettes.

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Image caption E-cigarettes ntizifise ingaruka nk'iz'itabi risanzwe, ariko abazigurisha baratujijwe kubera gutumbera urwaruka

Ishami ry'ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu rijejwe amagara y'abantu OMS, rifata itabi nk'"ikiza", kandi ko ari kimwe mu bibazo bibanganiye amagara y'abantu kuruta ibindi isi yigeze kumenya.

OMS isaba ibihugu gushiraho imigambi ibuza itabi, harimwo kubuza kwamamaza ibigo birikora canke kwemera intererano yavyo, no kuduza amakori kw'itabi.

OMS yemeza ko kunywa itabi vyagabanutse: ibice 20% vy'abatuye isi nibo banywa itabi mu 2016, ugereranije na 27% mu 2000.

Ariko rero ngo uwo murindi ntukwiye kugira amakungu ashike ku rugero yiyemeje.

Mu bakuze, miriyaridi 1.1 ni abanywi b'itabi, 80% muri bo bakaba bari mu bihugu bikenye canke bifise ubutunzi bugereranye.

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