Uko amagufa yacu ari guhindurwa n'ubuzima bugezweho

Amagufa yacu agenda ahinduka kubera ubuzima bw'iki gihe Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Amagufa yacu agenda ahinduka kubera ubuzima bw'iki gihe

Kugira umutwe usongoye inyuma ni ibyagiye biza nyuma, ubushakashatsi bushya bukagaragaza ko inkokora z'abantu zigenda ziba ntoya, amagufa yacu nayo akaba ari guhinduka mu buryo butangaje.

Mu myaka amagana ishize, abahanga bakomeje gutekereza ko amagufa yacu adahinduka - ko akura mu buryo buteganyijwe hagendewe ku miterere y'ababyeyi bacu.

Kuri ubu, abahanga bavuga ko igikanka cy'amagufa (skeleton / squelette) y'abantu cyorohereye. Bavuga ko nubwo abantu bakura amagufa yabo ajya mu mujyo w'ay'ababanje ariko ay'ab'ubu agenda ahinduka kubera ubuzima bw'iki gihe.

Ibi byatumye havuka ishami rishya ry'ubumenyi ryitwa "osteobiography" - ni ubuhanga bwiga gusa ku magufa, bukareba igikanka cyayo na nyiracyo, ibyo akora, uko akoresha umubiri we n'ibindi bishobora kugira ingaruka ku magufa ye.

Ibyo ubu buhanga bumaze kubona birimo nko kwiyongera kw'agace k'inyuma k'umutwe, kugabanuka k'urwasaya, urubyiruko rwinshi mu Budage rufite inkokora ntoya, ibi bikaba ari bimwe mu bisobanuye uko ubuzima bwa none buri guhindura imiterere y'amagufa yacu.

Urugero rw'uko ubu buhanga bwa "osteobiography" bukora: mu 1923 hafashwe ibisigazwa by'amagufa y'umugabo (umwe mu bo bitaga "abagabo bakomeye") wo mu birwa byo muri Philippines.

Ibi bisigazwa bivugwa ko ari ibyo mu kinyejana cya 16 cyangwa 17, amagufa ye akaba yari manini cyane. Umutwe we, amagufa y'amaboko, amagufa y'intugu, n'amagufa yo ku gice cyo hasi ku kaguru, yari akomeye cyane kandi ari maremare bidasanzwe.

Muri aka gace havugwa amateka y'abantu bari ibihangange kandi bakomeye kubera ibikorwa by'amarushanwa y'imbaraga z'umubiri bahoragamo.

Uko bagiye bagera ku bindi bisigazwa by'icyo gihe, bagiye babona ko atari imigani ahubwo abantu bo muri aka gace benshi bari barebare kandi bakomeye cyane.

Kuki bari bakomeye?

Akenshi aho basangaga ibisigazwa byabo habaga hari n'igisubizo. Basangaga iruhande rwabo cyangwa hafi yabo hari amabuye manini bicyekwa ko yari yubakishije inzu zabo. Bivuze ko muri aka gace abantu bubakishaga amabuye manini cyane bityo bagakoresha imbaraga zidasanzwe.

Rimwe muri aya mabuye bubakishaga ryabaga rifite metero eshanu z'uburebure kandi ripima toni 13 buri rimwe - ni hafi uburemere bw'inzovu nkuru ebyiri zo muri Afurika. Nta gushidikanya aho aba bantu bavanaga gukomera n'ubunini urebye ibikoresho bubakishaga.

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Image caption Inzu ya Taga muri Philippines yabaga yubakishije amabuye manini agaragaza imbaraga bakoreshaga

Abahanga muri buriya bumenyi bavuga ko impinduka ziriho none ziterwa cyane n'imibereho n'ubuzima bugezweho muri ibi bihe.

David Shahar, umuhanga wo muri Kaminuza ya The Sunshine Coast muri Australia, avuga ko mu myaka 20 amaze ari umushakashatsi hari impinduka amaze kubona ku magufa y'abantu.

Iya mbere ni ukwiyongera no gusongora kw'agace k'inyuma k'umutwe wa muntu ko hejuru y'ijosi.

Mu myaka itari myinshi cyane ishize, uku kwiyongera kw'iri gufa ry'inyuma ku mutwe byari ikintu kidasanzwe. Mu 1885 ubwo batangiraga kubikoraho ubushakashatsi, umuhanga w'Umufaransa Paul Broca yavuze ko urebye yasanze nta bantu bafite imitwe imeze gutyo.

Nyuma Shahar yatekereje ko haba hari izindi mpinduka akora ubundi bushakashatsi. We na mugenzi we bapimye abantu banyuranye bari hagati y'imyaka 18 na 86 basuzuma amagufa y'umutwe wabo.

Ibyo babonye biratangaje: amagufa y'imitwe w'abantu yariyongereye agana inyuma kandi asongoye mu buryo batatekerezaga, ndetse basanga byiganje cyane mu babyiruka bari hagati y'imyaka 18 na 30.

Ijosi

Iyo twicaye twemye ibintu biremerera ijosi biraringanira uruti rwacu ntiruvunike, ariko iyo twunamye mu byuma by'ikoranabuhanga ijosi ryacu riraremererwa, rikagorwa. Uburibwe ibi bitera abaganga babwita "text neck".

Shahar avuga ko kuko ahagorwa n'ibi bikorwa ku ijosi ari aho imitsi y'umubiri izamukira ijya ku mutwe, ibi bigira ingaruka ku magufa y'umutwe maze umubiri ukagerageza guhangana n'iki kibazo wegeranya agace k'inyuma k'umutwe.

Birumvikana ko kwicara nabi cyangwa guhagarara nabi bitaje muri iki kinyejana - kuva kera abantu ntibaburaga ibituma bagonda ijosi cyane.

Aba bahanga bavuga ko impamvu ingaruka zeze cyane muri iki gihe ari uko umwanya abantu bunama kuri za mudasobwa cyangwa telefone uruta kure uwo abo hambere bamaraga basoma ibitabo cyangwa bunamye bakora akandi kazi.

Urugero ni uko mu 1973 - mbere y'ibi bihe bigezweho by'ikoranabuhanga n'ubutumwa bwinshi - ikigereranyo cy'igihe umuturage w'Amerika yamaraga asoma ari amasaha abiri ku munsi, naho uyu munsi ab'ubu bamara kuri telefone hafi inshuro ebyiri z'icyo kigero.

Shahar avuga ko urebye uku kwiyongera no gusongora k'umutwe w'inyuma ntaho byenda kujya ahubwo bizakomeza kwiyongera akurikije imibereho y'ibi bihe.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Meibion / Alamy Stock Photo
Image caption Umwanya tumara kuri za telefone zacu uri guhindura imiterere y'umutwe

Inkokora ziri gushonga

Mu Budage, abahanga babonye ibindi bidasanzwe: inkokora z'abantu ziri gushonga ziba ntoya. Christiane Scheffler, umuhanga mu miterere ya muntu muri Kaminuza ya Potsdam, yabonye iki kibazo ubwo yarimo asuzuma ingano y'umubiri w'abana ku mashuri.

Byatumye ahita afata ibipimo by'abana bo hagati y'imyaka ya 1999 na 2009 asanga inkokora zabo zari nini ugereranyije n'iz'abana yapimye ubu. Yasanze kandi amagufa y'aba b'ubu yapimye yorohereye ugeranyije n'ab'icyo gihe.

Scheffler yabanje gucyeka ko ari uruhererekane rw'imiryago( genetic), ariko nyuma abona ko bidasanzwe ko ingirabuzima-fatizo (DNA) zihinduka mu gihe cy'imyaka 10 gusa. Ikindi yibajije ni imirire mibi ariko iki ni ikibazo ahandi hatari mu Budage.

Ibi byatumye Scheffler akora ubundi bushakashatsi - noneho anatumira abandi bahanga bafatanya na we. Baje gusanga kuba abana benshi badakora uturimo n'ingendo bifasha amagufa yabo, bituma adashobora kuba manini ahubwo agenda agabanuka.

Scheffler avuga ko n'ubusanzwe uko umuntu akoresha umubiri wubaka amagufa akiyongera kandi agakomera. Ko kuba amagufa y'abana ari kugenda aba mato kandi yoroha ari umubiri ufata imibereho igezweho aho ubona ko nta mpamvu ufite yo gukuza amagufa kuko utayakeneye.

Scheffler avuga ko kimwe mu byubakaga amagufa y'abantu ari ukugenda n'amaguru, ariko nyamara muri iki gihe ngo abantu benshi bakunda siporo mu magambo ariko ntibayikora, naho kugenda n'amaguru ngo bisigaye ahantu hacye.

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Image caption Abantu muri iki gihe ngo bakunda kureba siporo no kuyiganira ariko ntibayikore

Urwasaya ruragabanuka

Mu 2011, Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel, umushakashatsi mu bumenyamuntu wo muri Kaminuza ya State University of Buffalo muri New York, yatangiye ubushakashatsi ku rwasaya.

Avuga ko muri ibi bihe hagaragara impinduka mu magufa y'urwasaya.

Mbere byari bimenyerewe ko abaturuka mu miryango y'aborozi n'abava mu miryango y'abahinzi batanganya imisaya kubera igihe n'imbaraga bakoresha mu guhekenya.

Muri ibi bihe bigezweho, abantu benshi ntibagitunzwe na kimwe gusa muri biriya, mu buhinzi buvuguruye nabwo ibiribwa ntibigikomeye nka kera, abantu ntibagikeneye kwahuranya ibiribwa n'imbaraga nyinshi z'urwasaya bityo aya magufa nayo ntagikura ngo yaguke, nkuko Cramon-Taubadel abivuga.

Uyu muhanga avuga ko ingaruka zo kudakoresha urwasaya atari ukuba ruto gusa ahubwo hari n'uburwayi no gukura kudakwiriye kw'amenyo yo hejuru.

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Image caption Umutwe uri guhindurwa cyane n'ubuzima bw'iki gihe

Aba bahanga bavuga ko kubera kudakoresha cyane amenyo yo hasi nk'uko abo hambere bayakoreshaga cyane mu "gushuna", ibi bituma igice cy'amenyo yo hejuru gikura kurusha icyo hasi kidakoreshwa cyane.

Ati: "Kugeza ubu icyo tumaze kubona ni uko mu gihe abana bahabwa amafunguro akomeye byabarinda ibibazo mu gukura kw'amenyo yabo".

None, abahanga bo mu bihe bizaza nibasuzuma amagufa yacu bazayasangana iki? Niba tudahinduye imibereho, bazasanga twararyaga nabi, twarakoreshaga umubiri ku kigero gito, banabone ingaruka z'ikoranabuhanga.

Ibindi bisa n’ibi