Abantu mw'isi batera bakunda isukari, none hari ikibazo biteye, kiriko gikorwako iki?

Ikirundo c'isukari yera Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Urugero rw'isukari yiherezwa mw'isi muri rusangi rwavuye kuri toni zirenga miliyoni 123.4 mu 2001 ruja kuri toni 172.4 muri 2018.

Icigwa ciswe Global Burden of Disease, catangajwe mu kinyamakuru The Lancet, mu ntango z'uyu mwaka, casize itangazamakuru ryo muri Israel mu kanyamuneza

Umwihwezo w'ibiharuro vyerekana uko amagara y'abantu yifashe mu bihugu bigera ku 195, werekana ko Israel ari co gihugu kiza imbere kw'isi mu bihugu bidafise ikibazo c'impfu ziturutse ku ngwara zitegwa n'ibifungurwa.

Ivyo vyakurikiwe n'isekeza ry'inkuru zandikwa mu binyamakuru zihimiriza abantu "gufungura nk'abanya Israel"

"Akaga"

Muri 2018, muri Israel hafunguwe kg 60 z'isukari ku muntu, n'ukuvuga amagarama 165 ku munsi.

Urwo ni rugero ruri hejuru kurusha ahandi hose kw'isi, ufatiye ku biharuro BBC yaronse, bitangwa n'ikigo gikurikirana ikoreshwa ry'isukari ISO -International Sugar Organisation.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Ibitumbura bimemereye ko isukari bita sufganiyot mu giheburayo, birakunzwe cane mu minsi mikuru muri Israel

Professor Itamar Raz, umukuru w'ikigo ca Israel kijejwe kurwanya diabete akaba n'umuhinga mu kuvura diabetes ku rwego mpuzamakungu, agira ati "Muri Israel, urugero rw'isukari umuntu akuze afata ku munsi, usanga rugeze ku tuyiko 30, ibi ni agahomeramunwa.

Ibindi bihugu biza imbere mu gukoresha isukari nyinshi birimwo Malaysia, Barabados , Fiji na Brezil.

Abaza inyuma ya bose mu gukoresha isukari nkeyi ni abanya Korea ya ruguru, aho batarengeje kg 3.5 ku muntu mu 2018.

Aho ni mu gihe abazimyamuriro babo bo muri Korea y'epfo, ibiharuro vyo muri uwo mwaka vyerekana ko bageze ku kg 30.6 ku muntu.

Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, aho usanga haboneka ibiharuro bikwiye ku ngwara zifatira ku vyo abantu bafungura, bigaragara ko bakoresheje kg 31.1 ku muntu, ariko ntibari no mu bihugu 20 vya mbere bikoresha isukari nyinshi.

Umuntu agiye kuraba uko ibintu bimeze, asanga Ubuhinde arico gihugu kiza ubwa mbere mu gukoresha isukari nyinshi, aho hariwe toni miriyoni 25.39 muri 2018 - isumba isukari ikoreshwa hose mu bihugu vyose bigize Ubumwe bwa Bulaya.

Insiguro ku buryohe

Ibiharuro bitangwa ku gufungura isukari ntivyerekana gusa iyo abantu biyongerera mu bifungurwa n'ibinyobwa ubwabo gusa.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Hari ibifungurwa bisanzwe birimwo urugero runini rw'isukari

Hari n'ivyo abahinga mu magara y'abantu bita 'free sugar', iyo ikaba irimwo iyo ibifungurwa vyongerwamwo bikiriko biratunganywa mu mahinguriro canke vyisanganiwe ubwavyo, nk'ivvyamwa canke umutobe wavyo.

Ivyo vyose biza vyiyongera, ugasanga muri rusangi isukari abantu bihereza yaraduze iva kuri toni 123,4 mu 2001, ija kuri toni 172,4 mu 2018, nk'uko biboneka mu biharuro bitangwa na ISO.

Usaranganije iyo sukari yose ku gitigiri c'abantu kw'isi, usanga umwe yoba afungura kg 22.6 ku mwaka.

Ibifungurwa ku bwinshi.

Ariko ni kuki dufungura isukari nyinshi?

Impamvu n'uko isukari yamye ari igifungurwa kizimbutse kandi gishobora gushikirwa na bose gitanga inguvu zikenewe n'imibiri yacu.

Ishami ry'ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu ryitaho infungurwa FAO rimenyesha ko nk'akarorero, isukari mu Buhinde, ari "igifungurwa nkenerwa kiribwa na bose kandi gikenewe kugirango abakene baronke inguvu zikwiye mu mubiri wabo ku giciro giciririkiye".

Igitigiri c'abakunda ibisosa cariyongereye cane muri ico gihugu, kuva mu myaka y'intango za 1960s gushika hagati mu za 1990s, urugero rw'isukari rufungurwa rwariyongereye kuva kuri toni miriyoni 2.6 ruja kuri toni miriyoni 13.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Ibifingurwa vyaciye mu nganda, ari navyo bifise isukari nyinshi bikomeza kuboneka cane mu vyo abantu bihereza buri munsi uko imyaka itaha

Ibifungurwa biciye mu nganda vyaramaze kumenyerwa gukoreshwa na benshi kw'isi mu buzima bwabo bwa minsi yose.

Ibiharuro bituruka muri Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, vyerekana ko bene ivyo bifungurwa biri kuri 77% vy'ibifungurwa vyose vyagurishijwe mu 2002.

Isukari ni kirumara mu bifungurwa bica mu nganda, irakoreshwa mu kwongera uburyohe canke mu kwongereza igihe ibifungurwa bimara bibitse.

Abenshi mu bahinga b'amagara y'abantu bavuga ko urugero runini rw'isukari arirwo kibazo gikuru mu bitera ubuvyibuhe burenze bwabaye nk'ikiza.

Kugabanya urugero rw'isukari

Mu 2015, OMS yaragabanije urugero rw'isukari igira inama abantu kutarenza.

Iki gihe OMS igira inama abakuze n'abana kugabanya isukari isanzwe iri mu vyo bafungura itari iyongewemwo, ikagera munsi ya 10% vy'inguvu umubiri ukeneye.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption OMS igira inama abantu kutarenza amagarama 50 y'isukari ku munsi

OMS iravuga kandi ko kugabanyako ibindi bice 5% , n'ukuvuga gm 25 (utuyiko 6) ku munsi "bishobora kuzana inyungu ku magara y'abantu".

Umutegetsi mu buyobozi bw'ikigo British Heart Foundation, Victoria Taylor, avuga ko 'bigaragara ko abategetsi mu magara y'abantu bahanura abantu kugabanya isukari'.

Avuga ko "Uko ibintu bihagaze kino gihe, bigaragara ko isukari ifungurwa ku rugero rurenze haba mu bana canke abakuze, eka no ku ngero zose z'abantu mu bijanye n'ubutunzi."

Amakori

Gutangisha amakori ku birimwo isukari vyatumye ibihugu bimwe bimwe bitera intambwe kuruta gutanga impanuro gusa: mu myaka mike ishize, ibihugu bigera ku 20 vyashize amakori ku bifungurwa n'ibinyobwa birimwo isukari nyinshi.

Mu ntango z'uku kwezi, Singapore cabaye igihugu ca mbere cabujije amatangazo yamamaza ibinyobwa birimwo isukari, iryo tegeko rikazoshirwa mu ngiro mu mwaka uza.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Singapore iriko ifata ingingo zirwanya ubuvyibuhe bw'umurengera.

Umwe mu bategetsi b'ubushikiranganji bw'amagara y'abantu muri Singapore Edwin Tong, avuga ko "abaturiye isi bagenda barwiramwo abasaza muri rusangi, kandi ingwara zidakira zitera ziyongera, ivyo bigatera bijana isi mu bibazo vy'amagara kandi bitwara amafranga menshi, isi itazoshobora kwiyugurura hamwe atacokorwa.

Gushimikira ku binyobwa bisosa nka za fanta, ntibabikura ku busa. Ibi ni ibinyobwa birimwo isukari nyinshi cane kandi ata kintu c'ingirakamaro vyongera umubiri.

Ariko rero ibi binyobwa ubisanga henshi cane, nka hose kw'isi.

Witegereje ibiharuro vyegeranijwe n'ishure rya Harvard ritanga inyigisho ku magara y'abanyagihugu, fanta orange ya ml 355 irimwo utuyiko 11 tw'isukari.

Ivyirwa vyinshi vyarerekanye isano riri hagati ya bene ivyo binyobwa n'ubuvyibuhe, hamwe rero n'impungenge zo gufatwa n'ingwara za diabete bita 'de type 2,' umutima canke umuntu akaba yopfa imburagihe.

Iravugwa nabi

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Ibifungurwa vyoroshe nka fanta birangwamwo isukari nyinshi cane ariko biranyobwa hose kw;isi.

Ariko hari abibaza ko itangazamakuru ari ryo rivuga nabi isukari

Uwukuriye ikigo kijejwe isukari mw'isi -International Sugar Organisation, Jose Orive yabwiye BBC ko 'isukari itoranywa ikavugwa nabi', igakurwa mu bindi bifungurwa abantu bafungura bifise ingaruka ku magara yabo.

Yagize ati: "Isukari iravugwa nabi, ariko ntawokwirengagiza kahise kayo ko kuba igifungurwa c'ifatiro mu kuronsa umutnu inguvu akeneye. Isanzwe iri no mu maberebere".

Kubwiwe ngo ntikwiye kwizizirwa mu bikwiye kwirindwa ku bantu bashka kugabanya ikibazo c'ubuvyibuhe bw'umurengera cabaye nk'ikiza, kuko ngo n'ibindi bituma bifise uruhara, harimwo ko abantu batakiva aho bari ngo bagorore imitsi, canke ivyo bafungura muri rusangi

Orive agira ati : "turazi neza ko gufungura birengeje ata n'umwe bigirira neza"

"Infungurwa nzima ziracaboneka?"

Holly Gabriel, umwe mu banonosoye inyigisho ku bifungurwa - nutritioniste wo mu kigo 'Action Sugar' kigizwe n'abashakashatsi, bahimiriza leta gushiraho politike zigabanya isukari, nawe aremeza ko ikibazo atari isukari gusa.

Avuga ko ikibazo c'ubuvyibuhe burenze giterwa n'inyifato n'imibereho ituma abantu bavyibuha birenze, eka n'ibifungurwa bisigaye bitunganywa nabi.

Izo nizo mpamvu avuga ko hari hakwiye kugira igikorwa mu gushiraho ingingo zifasha gusubiza ibintu mu buryo.

Orive avuga ko atabona neza nimba ikibazo co gushira amakori ku bidandazwa bimwe bimwe bishobora kugira ico bifashije ku gihe kire kire, ariko ntikimubuza kunegura amahinguriro y'ibinyobwa n'ibifungurwa kw'ikoreshwa ry'isukari.

Isukari ntishirwa mu bifungurwa ngo yongereze ubusose gusa, ishobora no gufasha kugirango bibikike igihe kire kire.

Gushira amakori ku bifungurwa, vyagaragaye ko bifasha gusa mu kwinjiza amakori muri leta.

Orive yemeza ko:"Ariko amahinguriro y'ibifungurwa birakenewe ko agira uruhara akareka kwihisha."

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Isukari ituma ibifungurwa bimaze gutunganywa biramba

Amahinguriro y'ibifungurwa n'ibinyobwa aramaze kugira urwo ruhara mu bihugu bimwe bimwe.

Mu kwezi kwa cumi na kabiri umwaka wa 2018, amahinguriro menshi akomeye mu Budagi yarunvikanye na leta kugabanya isukari mu bifungurwa vyayo kuva mu 2025 , harimwo n'ibinyobwa vyoroshe, aho urugero rwayo ruzokurwako 15 %.

Ariko amakori nayo? Yo hari ico afasha?

Ibindi bifungurwa bikorwa ma mafu nk'ama gato vyovyo?

Mu cirwa cakozwe n'abashakashatsi bo muri kaminuza ya Otago muri Nouvelle Zelande, basanze amakori ya 10% ku binyobwa vyoroshe birimwo isukari yaratumye kugura no kwihereza ivyo binyobwa kugabanuka ku bice 10%.

Mu bibanza bimwe, kubuza isukari vyatumye amahinguriro y'ibifungurwa n'ibinyobwa ahindura kugirango yirinde gutozwa amakori -mu Bwongereza, ikigo 'Action on Sugar', kimenyesha ko urugero rw'isukari mu binyobwa rwagabanutse ko 28.8 % mu binyobwa kuva mu 2018.

Kubera ayo amakori atanguye gutozwa vuba mu bihugu vyinshi, ico bishobora kuba vyarafashije ku buzima bw'abanyagihugu ntikiragaragara neza.

Ariko rero abigisha bo kuri kaminuza ya 'London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine mu Bwongereza, bakoze ikimeze nko gushiraho amakori ku bifungurwa vy'utuntu duto duto two gupfuvya inzara (snacks) nk'ibisuguti, gato n'imbombo, basanga vyoshobora gufasha.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko amakori ku bifungurwa ashobora kugabanya urugero rwo kubifungura ariko ico bifasha ku magara y'abantu ntikiramenyekana

Mu gikorwa kaminuza ya Oxford bafatanijemwo na kaminuza ya Cambridge, bitegereje ico kwongera ibice 20% ku kiguzi c'ibifungurwa birimwo isukari bishobora gufasha.

Basanze muri rusange, kwongereza ico giciro ku binyobwa bisosa vyotuma abantu batakaza kg 1.3 mu mwaka umwe.

Amakori ku tuvunamusase

Pauline Scheelbeek ari mu banditse ivyavuye mu cigwa c'izo kaminuza avuga ko "Ubwongereza buri mu bihugu bishobora gufatwa nk'akarorero k'uburyo inkurikizi z'ingingo za leta zishobora gukurikiranwa, ico zashitseko kigeragezwa.

Scheelbeek n'abandi bashakashatsi bagenzi we basanze ikori ku tuvunamusase, rishobora gufasha kugabanya ubuvyibuhe burenze - obesite -, ku bice 2.7 % mu banyagihugu b'Ubwongereza mu kiringo kitarenze umwaka.

Avuga ko kuri bo basanga ikori rishobora gufasha, n'ubwo atawovuga ko hari ubufindo umuntu ashobora gukoresha mu gukuraho bwangu ikibazo c'ubuvyibuhe bw' umurengera no guhindura mu nziza uburyo abantu bafungura.

Ariko rero ngo igikenewe n'ukumenya ko kugabanya isukari ari ngombwa mu bikeneye gukorwa.