Ubudage na Namibia: jenoside yatangwaho impozamarira ingana gute?

  • Inkuru ya Tim Whewell
  • BBC News, Namibia
Swakopmund

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

Umwumvikano ushobora kubera intangarugero ibindi bihugu byahoze bikoronijwe hirya no hino ku isi urimo kuganirwaho hagati y'Ubudage na Namibia kugirango hasibangane ibikomere byasizwe n'igifatwa ubungubu muri rusange nka jenoside yakozwe n'ingabo z'ubutegetsi bw'abakoloni.

Ariko se ni ikihe kiguzi cyatangwa nyuma yo kurandura mu mizi abanyagihugu basangiye umuco? Muri Namibia, abakomoka ku miryango yakorewe jenoside n'abakomoka ku miryango y'abakoloni bari mu mpaka z'urudaca ku bijyanye n'ibyo biganiro birimo kuba.

Laidlaw Peringanda agira ati: "Ku nkengero z'uyu musenyi wose ku nyanja (plage), hari inkambi yahurizwagamo abantu bo kwica." Imikwege ya senyenge yanyuraga hariya ubona hari parking y'imodoka ubungubu.

Iyi mpirimbanyi iharanira imibereho myiza y'abanyagihugu no guteza imbere ubuhanzi iratunga urutoki ahantu hadasakaye abantu bagurira ibyo kurya no kunywa hari n'ikibuga cy'imikino cy'abana bari mu rugendo ahitwa Swakopmund.

Hakaba ari ahantu hakomeye abantu bajya kuruhukira iruhande rw'inyanja aho amazi akonje y'inyanja ya Atlantic ahurira n'impera z'ubutayu bwa Namib.

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

"Nyogokuruza yambwiye ko bamwe mubo mu muryango wacu bazanywe hano maze bakoreshwa ku gahato mu nyuma barapfa".

Aha aravuga mu myaka ya 1904-1908, igihe Namibia y'ubu yari ikoronijwe n'Ubudage bwayitaga Afurika y'amajyepfo y'uburengerazuba.

Abantu babarirwa mu bihumbi mirongo barishwe igihe ingabo z'abakoroni zaburizagamo n'ubugome bwinshi imyivumbagatanyo y'abantu bo mu moko abiri akomeye muri iki gihugu, aba Herero n'aba Nama, maze benshi baricwa naho abandi bahungira mu butayu (bwa Omaheke mu burasirazuba bw'igihugu) aho benshi bapfuye bazize inzara.

Abarokotse bibonye mu makambi aho bakoreshejwe akazi k'uburetwa nk'abacakara maze bahitanwa n'ubukonje, indyo mbi, umunaniro ukabije n'ibikorwa by'urugomo.

Aba Herero babarirwa ku bihumbi 65 mu bihumbi 80 bari batuye muri Afurika y'amajyepfo y'uburengerazuba mu ntangiriro z'ubutegetsi bw'ubukoroni biravugwa ko bishwe. Naho aba Nama bashobora kuba bagera ku bihumbi 10 barapfuye ku bihumbi 20 bari mu gihugu.

Kuva muri 2015, igihe Ubudage ku mugaragaro bwiyemereraga ko ubwo bwicanyi bufatwa nka jenoside, bwahise butangira ibiganiro na Namibia bigamije kugera ku mpozamarira yatuma haba ubutabera kuri ayo mabi.

Akaba ari umwumvikano waba intangarugero ku isi. Ni ubwa mbere igihugu cyahoze gikoronije kicarana n'icyo cyakoronije muri buno buryo kugirango byumvikane ku masezerano magari arebana n'umurage w'akahise.

Ubudage bwavuze ko buzasaba imbabazi ku mugaragaro - ariko amagambo buzabivugamo aracyategurwa. Ariko ikibazo nyamukuru ku banya Namibia bibaza ni uburyo impozamarira ifatika yatangwa.

Insiguro y'isanamu,

Laidlaw Peringanda ari hejuru y'ibyobo byahambwemo abantu benshi baguye mu nkambi yicirwagamo abantu.

Laidlaw Peringanda, nk'abandi ba Herero, nta shiti ko icyo ashaka kizava muri ibyo biganiro ari amasezerano arimo amafaranga menshi azatuma abantu bo mu bwoko bwe bongera gukungahara nk'aborozi nkuko byari bimeze mbere ya jenoside.

Mu nyuma bwinshi mu butaka bwabo bwagabanijwemo imirima y'abikorera ku giti cyabo b'abadage bari bamaze gutura muri iki gihugu.

Magingo aya, benshi muba Herero n'aba Nama baba mu duce ducucikanye ku butaka basangiye n'abandi bahawe mu nyuma naho abandi baba mu mijyi - benshi muri bo mu tuzu tudakomeye cyangwa se mu tujagari usanga dutuwe na 40% by'abaturage ba Namibia.

Muri Swakopmund, hari icyuho gikabije hagati y'amazu meza yubatswe mu mujyi rwa gati yo mu gihe cy'ubukoroni hagituwe na benshi mu buzukuru n'abuzukuruza b'abakoroni - n'utuzu tw'utururi twubatse mu biti n'amabati y'ibyuma tugenda tukagera mu majyaruguru y'umujyi.

Laidlaw agira ati: "Nta misarane ifite amazi bafite, nta mazi meza yo kunywa bafite nta n'umuriro w'amashanyarazi bafite."

Akomeza avuga ati: "Bamwe mu bantu batuye hano bakomoka ku baguye mu makambi yicirwagamo abantu. Ibi rwose ntabwo bikwiye."

"Ubudage bugomba kugura ubutaka bw'abasekuru bacu tukabusubizwa".

Ibi asaba nibyo ugenda wumva kenshi aho uca hirya no hino.

Bafite ikizere ko leta y'Ubudage izatanga inkunga muri gahunda yo kuvugurura amategeko agenga ubutaka kugirango amasambu afitwe n'abanya Namibia bo mu bwoko bw'abadage agurwe maze asaranganywe mu ba Herero n'aba Nama.

Abanya Namibia bo mu bwoko bw'abadage bivugwa ko aribo benshi mu bahinzi b'abazungu bikubiye hafi 70% by'ubutaka bwera mu gihugu hose kandi amwe mu masambu yabo ni manini cyane ku buryo imwe iba ifite kilometero kare zirenga gato igihumbi.

Ibi se birashoka? Uyoboye intumwa za Namibia mu biganiro, Dr Zed Ngavirue avuga ko Ubudage bwiyemereye ko bugomba kugira icyo bukora mu gufasha Namibia kwiyubaka kandi ngo hari amafaranga bwemeye gutanga muri ayo masezerano muri rusange yo kugura ubutaka ku babufite bifuza kubugurisha.

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

Insiguro y'isanamu,

Zed Ngavirue, uyoboye ibiganiro ku ruhande rwa Namibia.

Ariko yongeraho ati: "Naba nibeshye mvuze ko ikibazo cy'ubutaka kizabonerwa umuti n'Ubudage. Ntabwo abantu batakaje ubutaka kubera gusa ubukoroni bw'Ubudage."

Benshi mu bazungu bagiye gutura muri Namibia nyuma yaho Ubudage butakarije Namibia nyuma y'intambara ya mbere y'isi yose maze itangira gutegekwa na Afurika yepfo mu gihe cy'imyaka 70.

Kandi kuva yabona ubwigenge muri 1990, ubutaka bwaguzwe n'abanya Namibia b'abirabura n'abanyamahanga.

Leta y'Ubudage yirinda gukoresha ijambo "impozamarira" ariko Zed Ngavirue avuga ko hari indi mishinga ishoboka irimo kuganirwaho irimo inkunga y'Ubudage mu buvuzi, uburezi, imiturire no gutunganya amazi.

Yongeraho ko ibiganiro bigeze ahakomeye ku buryo udashobora kuba wamenya amafaranga azatangwa.

Naho ku ruhande rw'Ubudage, bwanze kugira icyo buvuga ku mugaragaro ku bijyanye n'intambwe imaze guterwa muri ibyo biganiro.

Nyuma y'imyaka itandatu nta kiragerwaho, Laidlaw ni umwe mu ba Herero n'aba Nama wumva atakomeza gutegereza.

Avuga ko Ubudage bwagombye kutaganira gusa na leta ya Namibia ko ahubwo bwagombye no kuganira mu buryo butaziguye n'abakuru b'aba Herero n'aba Nama nk'umuyobozi mukuru w'aba Herero Vekuii Rukoro wagerageje kurega Ubudage mu nkiko zo muri Amerika kugirango butange impozamarira ariko kugeza ubu akaba ntacyo yari yageraho.

Ubwoba ni uko amafaranga leta zombi zakumvikanaho ashobora no kugera ku miryango itarigeze ihura na jenoside nk'ubwoko bw'aba nyamwinshi b'aba Ovambo.

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

Insiguro y'isanamu,

Vekuii Rukoro

Umujyanama wa Chief Rukoro, Festus Mundjuua avuga ko leta "ishaka gufata ayo mafaranga kubera ko ishaka kuyakoresha mu mishinga yayo idafitiye amafaranga." Ibi ariko leta irabihakana ikavuga ko amafaranga yose azatangwa azakoreshwa n'imiryango yagizweho ingaruka.

Ntabwo ariko ari abakomoka ku miryango yagizweho ingaruka bashidikanya gusa kuri ibyo biganiro. Na bamwe mu banya Namibia hafi ibihumbi 30 bavuga ikidage bakomoka ku bakoroni nabo barashidikanya.

Impuguke mu mateka DR Andreas Vogt ivuga ko "itegeko ruharwa ryo gutsemba" ryashyizweho umukono n'umukuru w'ingabo z'abakoroni Gen Lothar von Trotha muri 1904 ryavugaga ko "buri mu Herero ubonetse ahantu hagenzurwa n'abadage, yaba afite imbunda cyangwa afite inka, agomba kwicwa" - atari itegeko rya leta kandi ko ritigeze rishyirwa mu bikorwa.

Vogt avuga ko kuvuga ko hari uruhande rumwe rwari ubutegetsi bw'abakoloni b'abadage bakoze jenoside, bari bafite ubugome bwinshi kandi batababarira, n'urundi ruhande rw'aba Herero b'abamarayika, nta gaciro byagombye guhabwa.

We na benshi mu banya Namibia b'abadage bashimangira ko aba Herero bigometse ku butegetsi bw'abadage muri 1904 - bakica abadage 120 bari baje gutura muri icyo gihugu ariko mu nyuma bakaza gutsindirwa mu mirwano yahitwa Waterberg.

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

Umwaka ushize umunya Namibia wo mu bwoko bw'abadage wabaye minisitiri nyuma gato y'ubwigenge, Anton von Wietersheim, yafashije mu gutangiza igikorwa kigamije gukangurira abanya Namibia bavuga ikidage kuganira ku mateka hagati yabo ndetse n'abahagarariye aba Herero n'aba Nama, ariko gahunda y'inama nkuru ihuza abanya Namibia bavuga ikidage yabaye itindijwe kubera indwara ya Covid-19.

Von Wietersheim atekereza ko abanya Namibia bavuga ikidage baramutse bashyigikiye ibiganiro kuri iyo jenoside bishobora guha ingufu Ubudage kugirango bugirane amasezerano na Namibia. Namibia yo yifuza ko ayo masezerano yagerwaho mbere y'amatora ateganijwe mu Budage mu kwezi kwa cyenda.

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

Insiguro y'isanamu,

Imfungwa z'aba Herero ziboshye n'iminyururu (1904)

Umunya Namibia wo mu bwoko bw'abadage, Henning Melber, akaba ari umwarimu muri kaminuza n'impirimbanyi wakurikiranye cyane ibyo biganiro, atekereza ko ibindi bihugu byo mu Burayi byahoze bikoronije ibindi byagejeje impungenge zabyo mu muhezo ku Budage bivuga ko amasezerano bwagirana na Namibia ashobora gutuma n'ibindi bihugu byo muri Afurika, Aziya y'amajyepfo y'uburasirazuba n'ahandi nabyo bitangira gusaba impozamarira.

Tanzania - yahoze yitwa Tanganyika ku bukoroni bw'abadage - nayo yatangiye gusaba impozamarira ku mabi yakozwe kandi n'ibindi bihugu byahoze bikoronijiwe nabyo bishobora gukurikiraho.

Ariko Melber aravuga ati: "Ntekereza ko Ubudage nta kibazo bufite ku mafaranga bushobora gutanga buramutse bwijejwe ko ayo masezerano yafunga burundu iki gika kibi mu mateka y'ubukoroni bwabwo. Ikibazo aho kiri ni uko budashaka ko n'ibindi bihugu biboneraho bikaba byagira ingaruka muri rusange."

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

Insiguro y'isanamu,

Gari ya moshi itwaye imfungwa yerekeje mu nkambi yicirwagamo abantu (1904)

Ku ruhande rwe, Zed Ngavirue, inararibomye mu mibano n'amahanga, ntacyo yizeza mu bishobora kugerwaho.

Amwenyura agira ati: "Muri politiki ibintu byose birashoboka".

Ariko mu tujagari two hanze y'umujyi wa Swakopmund, bamwe mu ba Herero ubu bahembwa amafaranga y'intica ntikize yemewe n'amategeko, bakorera abakomoka ku badage bakoresheje abasekuruza babo nk'abacakara, ntabwo babyumva kimwe.

Laidlaw Peringanda agira ati: "Bamwe mu rubyiruko bamaze kurambirwa, barashaka gufata ubutaka ku ngufu. Wenda leta y'Ubudage ntiyagombye gukina umukino wo kwihishahisha natwe."