Itegeko rya Sharia ni iki? Rivuze iki ku bagore bo muri Afghanistan?

Abanayeshure b'abakobwa bavuye kw'ishure bambaye umwambaro ubafuka hose bariko baratambuka mw'ibarabara mu buraruko bw'intara ya Raqqa muri Syria mun kwezi kwa gatatu mu 2014

Ahavuye isanamu, Reuters

Aba Taliban bavuga ko bazotwara Afghanistan hisunzwe ata guhesha ingingo z'amategeko ya Islam zizwi nk'itegeko rya Sharia.

Uwo mugwi washikiriye intsinzi umaze gufata umugwa mukuru Kabul, gutyo urangaza imyaka hafi 20 y'uruhara rw'ingabo mpuzamakungu zari zirongowe na Amerika uri ico gihugu.

Hariko haba iki muri Afghanistan?

Mu kiganiro ca mbere n'abamenyeshamakuru inyuma yo gufata Kabul, umuvugizi w'aba Taliban yavuze ko ibibazo bimwe bimwe nk'ivyerekeye ibinyamakuru n'uburenganzira bw'abagore bizokwubahirizwa hisunzwe "itegeko rya Islam", ariko uwo mugwi nturasigura ico ivyo bizoba bivuze mu ngiro canke mu bikorwa.

Uwatsinzindiye agashimwe k'amahoro ka Nobel Malala Yousafzai - yarashwe n'aba Taliban afise imyaka 15 ahorwa guharanira uburenganzira bw'abakobwa bwo kuja mu mashure muri Pakistan - yagabishije ko ingene aba Taliban batahura itegeko rya Sharia bishbora kuba akaga ku bakobwa n'abagore muri Afganistan.

Yabwiye BBC ati: " Nararonse akaryo ko kuvugana na bamwe mu baharanira uburenganzira muri Afghanistan, barimwo abo mu mashirahamwe y'abagore, nabo barafise ayo makenga ko batazi ico ubuzima bwabo bugiye kuba."

"Benshi baribuka ivyariko biraba mu 1996-2001, gutyo bakaba bafise amakenga menshi ku mutekano wabo, uburenganzira bwabo, ugukingirwa [no] gusubira kuja mu mashure."

Igijhe aba Taliban baheruka ku butegetsi abagore ntibari bemerewe gukora akazi canke kuja mw'ishure. Kuva ku myaka umunani, abakobwa bategerezwa kwambara burka, abagore nabo bakaba bari barekuriwe kuja ahabona ari uko baherekejwe n'umuntu w'umugabo wo mu muryango. Abagore babirenzeko barakubitwa abantu barorera.

Ministre w'Ubwongereza ajejwe intwaro yo hagati Madame Priti Patel, avuga ku migambi ya reta yo kwakira impunzi 20.000 z'abanya-Afghanistan mu Bwongereza, yavuze ko atizeye ukwizeza kwatanzwe [n'aba Taliban].

Yabwiye BBC ko uwo mugwi ufise kahise ko gukandamiza abagore, kandi ko "ivyo bitagiye guhinduka buno nyene".

Sharia ni iki?

Itegeko rya Sharia n'indinganzizo y'amategeko ya Islam. Riva muri Koran, inyandiko shingiro ya Islam, hamwe na fatwa - imanza ziba zaciwe n'inzobere mu vyigwa vya Islam.

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

Sharia ubundi risigura "inzira igaragara, icamwo abantu benshi igana ku mazi".

Itegeko rya Sharia rikora nk'igitabo c'ingingo zigenga ukubaho aba Islam bose bategerezwa kwisunga, harimwo amasengesho, kwisonzesha no gufasha abakene.

Rigamije gufasha aba-Islam gutahura ingene bategerezwa kwigenza mu kintu icarico cose c'ubuzima bwabo hisunzwe ingene Imana ibishaka.

Ivyo bisigura iki mu bikorwa?

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

Insiguro y'isanamu,

Itegeko rya Sharia rivuga ko abagabo n'abagore bategerezwa kwambara bisanzwe, yamara ibihugu biratandukanye mu buryo bibitahura

Sharia rishobora guha insiguro icarico cose kijanye n'ubuzima bwa minsi yose bw'umu-Islam.

Nk'akarorero, nk'umu-Islam atazi neza ico yokora aronse ubutumire bw'abo bakorana kugira bajane mu kabare inyuma y'akazi ashobora kuraba inzobere mu vyigwa vya Islam kugira amugire inama maze akore ibijanye n'amategeko y'idini ryabo.

Ibindi bice vy'ubuzima bwa minsi yose aho aba-Islam bashobora kubaza inzobere ingene bovyifatamwo n'amategeko agenga umuryango, amafaranga hamwe n'imirimo y'ubugwizatunga.

Bimwe mu bihano ruhasha ni ivyahe?

Sharia ishira ivyaha mu migwi mikuru mikuru ibiri: ivyaha vya ''hadd", biba ari ivyaha bikomeye cane bifise n'ibihano bizwi, hamwe n'ivyaja vya ''tazir'' aho igihano gishingwa n'umucamanza.

Ivyaha vya ''hadd'' birimwo ukwiba, gushobora guhanishwa guca ikiganza c'uwagiriwe n'ico caha, hamwe n'ubusambanyi bw'abarenze ibigo, bushobora guhanishwa kwicishwa amabuye.

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images

Insiguro y'isanamu,

Umugore wo muri Indonesia ariko arakubwitwa inkoni icese mu ntara ya Aceh inyuma yo gufatwa ari kumwe n'umuhungu bakundana

Amwe mu mashirahamwe ya Islam avuga ko hari inzitizi nyisnhi hamwe n'umurundo w'ivyemezo bikenerwa mw'ishirwa mu ngiro ry'ibihano vya hadd.

Ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu ONU ryariyamirije kwicisha amabuye, rivuga ko ari ''iyica rubuzo canke ubundi buryo bwo gufata canke guhana umuntu bunyamaswa, ata buntu, butesha agaciro ko rero bubujijwe".

Si ibihugu vyose vya Islam bishira mu ngiro ivyo bihano vya hadd kandi amatohoza amaze kwerekana ko aba-Islam babona mu buryo butandukanye cane ibijanye n'ibihano ruhasha.

Aba-Islam barashobora kunyongwa kubera guhindura idini?

Apostasy, canke uguta ukwemera, n'ikibazo kitavugwako rumwe cane mu ba-Islam kandi abahinga bavuga ko inzobere nyinshi mu vyigwa vya Islam zivuga ko ico caha gihanishwa urupfu.

Ariko hari umugwi muto w'incabwenge z'aba Islam cane cane abakorana n'ibihugu vya Buraya, bavuga ko ukuri kw'isi ya none gusigura ko ''igihano'' gikwiye kurekerwa Imana - kandi ko Islam ubwayo itageramiwe n'uguta ukwemera.

Na Koroan ubwayo ivuga ko ''ata guhata'' mu bijanye n'idini.

Imanza zicibwa gute?

Nko ku yandi mategeko yose, Sharia rirazitanye kandi kurishira mu ngiro bihagarara ahanini ku bwiza n'ubumenyi bw'abahinga.

Abanyamategeko b'aba-Islam batanga intumbero n'ingingo bashinze. Intumbero ifatwa nk'urubanza rwaciwe yitwa fatwa.

Ahavuye isanamu, Joshua Paul for the BBC

Insiguro y'isanamu,

Umucamanza Nenney Shushaidah n'umwe mu bagore ba mbere b'abacamanza muri sentare nkuru ya Sharia mui Malaysia

Hari amashure atanu atandukanye y'itegeko rya Sharia. Hari inyigisho zine za Sunni: Hanbali, Maliki, Shafi'i na Hanafi, hamwe rero n'inyigisho imwe ya Shia, yitwa Shia Jaafari.

Izo nyigisho zitanu zitandukanye ku buryo zisobanura, ijambo ku rindi, inyandiko itegeko rya Sharia rikomokako.